A new class of pesticides that are nicotine-based: neonicotinoids ; also called: imidacloprid, acetamiprid, clothianidin, nitenpyram, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam can create lethal and sub-lethal effects on bees.
The EPA identifies two specific neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and clothianidin, as highly toxic to bees. Both chemicals cause symptoms in bees such as memory loss, navigation disruption, paralysis and death.
Both chemicals have been linked in dramatic honeybee deaths and subsequent suspensions of their use in France and Germany. Several European countries have already suspended them. Last year Slovenia and Italy also suspended their use for what they consider a significant risk to honeybee populations.