Decommission Mullaperiyar Dam. Save Kerala.
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The Mullaperiyar dam operating from 1895 is a dam build before the formation of Republic Of India and is leased for an unheard period of 999 years till 2885 [10 Centuries or 1 Millennium] to the then Madras Presidency now Tamil Nadu, It took 25 long years of force and arm twisting by the Madras Government with the help of the mighty British Empire to make The Maharaj Of Travancore comply to this agreement. The agreement was then ratified in 1970 without any foresight and a misguided altruism. According to this agreement Tamil Nadu has complete control and right over the dam even though the dam and originating rivers are completely situated within Kerala. The British engineers who constructed the dam gave the life time of dam 50 years because it was build of Crude Lime Surkhi Mortar an old and primitive technology which has a Concrete Grade of M5 now presently used Cement Concrete Mortar has a grade of M30 which is almost 6 Times the strength and quality back then.
The Thickness at the top of the dam is 3.66 meters and the bottom is 44.2 meters. The Height is 53.64 meters, Width is 365.72 meters with a total capacity of 15.6 TMC water spreading over an area of 8600 acres of land that is leased.
SUPREME COURT CASE:
Kerala Government and its inexperienced lawyers and politicians failed to present things properly in front of the Hon'ble SC and the issue is consistently put on the back burner by many ruling governments in Kerala that have come and gone and Tamil Nadu government with its lots of water dispute experience won the supreme court and the court allowed Tamil Nadu to raise water level from 136ft to 142ft and has given the Central Water commission of the duty of the dam. Tamil Nadu keeps talking about this "Technical Committee" which has 'guaranteed' safety for the dam on the basis of some cosmetic maintenance work done. Any person can look up at the CWC record and see that they have a bad track record as far as the safety of dam is concerned and if anyone thinks that the SC verdicts are infallible then they are being extremely naive and just held together because of the certification of an Empowered Committee.
Any dam in the world the water level is reduced after 70 years of operation so as to reduce stuctural strain that might occur which is also one of the main guidelines of the International Dam Safety Authority (IDSA). Tamil Nadu keeps saying that the dam is strong and the water level should be increased because of some cosmetic repairs done on the dam. The foundation is very much the same, no drilling or grouting of structure were ever done and the Ritcher scale test by the IIT Roorkee team which has no connection ever so with Kerala concluded that the dam cannot hold any earth quake more than 6 RcH in a place like Idukki where there are frequent earthquakes and land slide occurances. The Inspection also done by the Indian Institute of Science Bangalore, Center for Earth and Science Studies(CESS) have also concluded that in case of an earth quake the dam will not be able to handle it. [Recent Earth Quakes of the vicinity in the past: Nedumkandam(1988) 4.5 RcH, Periyar Basin(2000) 5.0 RcH, Idukki(2011) 3.5 RcH]
Since then the Tamil Nadu government has protested against inspection by independent agencies and has banned that with the help of the center, Why is that?! They have even barred Kerala engineers to conduct non-destructive tests or inspection by any international agencies. Infact these reports by IIT Roorkee and other agencies weren't even presented during the trial and they know very well that they are playing with life of millions of peoples, An entire state!
Since 12th century there have been more than 2000 dam failures in different parts of the world, Dam failures are not remote occurrences but happen every year in different parts of the world because of one reason or other even dams that are build using modern engineering have had failures and all of these dams were once certified safe before these failures happened. The Banquio Dam Disaster in China which happened in 1975 has caused a death toll 1,71,000 people and millions where displaced and the dam was just 116.34 meters above sea level and Mullaperiyar dam which is perched 879.3 meters above sea level is still overlooked and not prioritised by the Govt of India.
In case of a dam failure in Mullaperiyar the water will rush like a bullet fired from the barrel of a gun along the steep hills of Thekkady in Idukki and wash away more than dozens of dam along the path including the Idukki Reservoir comprising of the Idukki Dam, Kulamavu Dam, Cheruthoni Dam all of which will result in a catastrophe the world has never seen before and a disaster 10 times that of the Banquio Dam. Nearly 3 million or 30 lakh innocent people of 4 districts will be washed away. Districts of Idukki, Kottayam, Alappuzha and Ernakulam will be completely submerged in water and dirt. Kochi(Cochin) City in Ernakulam district the 2nd most populated the most developed city and the center of all development in Kerala will be no more and Tamil Nadu Government is saying that EVEN IF THE DAM BREAKS THE IDUKKI RESERVOIR WILL BE ABLE TO HOLD THE WATER, any person in the world in the right mind will understand that the dam failure will happen when it is monsoon and the idukki reservoirs will be almost filled upto the brim of its capacity and the water which is rushing like a bullet at that force along with debris such as Trees, Rocks, Houses will wipe and destroy the Idukki Reservoir.
Since 2011 the tremors in Idukki district (as accepted by the TN govt in a report submitted to the Hon'ble SC) has left major cracks and leaks in blocks of 17 and 18 and the joints between them. Many number of leaks and cracks were also found in the surface and gallery of the dam the masonry cover provided at the upstream base portion of the dam has undergone damages from 95 to 106 feet. The dam has no Transverse Contraction Joints because of its old construction these are used in modern dam to aid in stability and to distribute force. The dam in it's construction doesn't have a Drainage Gallery build into it which are must in all the modern dams made today. Tamilnadu keeps arguing that the cosmetic repairs and maintenance that it does every year is enough to keep the dam safe and going for 999 years till 2885 and is planning to further increase the water level to the maximum of 152 ft.
The Mullaperiyar reservoir was conceived in 1886 with an FRL of 144ft (Please See 'History of Periyar Project by A.T. Mackenzie, 1899). But in 1908 after 13 years after completion of the project, the FRL was raised from 144 ft to 152 ft without the concurrence of Travancore. This FRL was reduced to 150ft in 1964 and then to 145 ft in 1978 and further to 136 ft in 1979 due to safety concerns. The dam in it's original structure is designed to hold water level below 144 ft but here now TN wants to raise it to the maximum of 152 ft ignoring all the safety mechanism and the structure's original capacity which will strain the dam to it's core.
Mullaperiyar is a traditional gravity dam, the strength of which depends on its weight and core to sustain it's strength. The walls of the dam are covered with rubble masonry to protect the core from high water pressure and core is built with hydraulic lime and Surkhi. This makes it the only dam of its kind in the world making it difficult to assess the strength of the structure.
Most of the Lime and Surkhi that has been used in the construction has undergone heavy deterioration and a good portion of the lime that has been used during the construction has been washed away and water seepage level in the dam has also continuously risen. No strengthening works were ever done on the interior surface of the dam below 110 ft because of the standing water coloumn and the dam was never emptied to check damages or seepages because of the always standing water. Cracks, leaks and seepages developed in the dam have made the structure damp and wet. No such technology is found in the world to strengthen a dam that is this old, deteriorating with time and leaking from top to bottom internally and it hasn't even crossed 135 years and yet still Tamil Nadu Govt is fighting and wants to keep on using it for 999 years or 1 Millennium.
ECONOMICS OF THE DAM:
According to the agreement the benefit of the dam is loapsided and is completely in favor for Tamil Nadu even though the dam is completely situated within Kerala. Every year Tamil Nadu pays just 10 lakh to 25 TMC Water to Kerala from Mullaperiyar in contrast Tamil Nadu pays 3 crores to 1 TMC Water to Karnataka and Andhra even though they share co-basin rivers, If by then todays standards Tamil Nadu must pay at least 75+ Crores every year to Kerala for the water from Mullaperiyar. Tamil Nadu govt makes more than 700+ Crore from Electricity Generation, Trade and Taxes every year from the water it gets from Mullaperiyar Dam and Kerala just gets 10.25 lakhs from it's own Mullaperiyar waters. Because of these economic benefits that TN govt enjoys for free they won't let Kerala do anything about the dam and all the disastrous impact that is sure to happen will not affect Tamil Nadu but will only happen to Kerala.
We know water is a common resource that is to be shared and all rivers within any state does not belong to the state but rather the Govt Of India. All we are saying is that using MULLAPERIYAR DAM to continue this greed is completely unacceptable. Kerala Govt has said they would even build a new dam by spending 700 crores of its own money and will give the same or more amount of water to TN and the existing old dam will be dismantled only after completion of the brand new dam so that water supply to TN will not be impacted during the time of construction but a new dam means a new contract and Tamil Nadu govt and politicians doesn't want that because they will have to give up this agreement. Tamil Nadu Govt and TN politicians look at only the economical side of this and doesn't even consider any plea on base of humanity. Tamil Nadu is accusing Kerala of ulterior motives for demand of Mullaperiyar are you even serious? Kerala has no use of this dam (except flood control) and is ONLY used for diverting the water to Vaigai Dam in Tamil Nadu to facilitate agriculture and drinking purposes. Tamil Nadu people don't care of all these problems if we ask any Tamil people they will say problem is Kerala not giving any water to Tamil Nadu that rightfully belongs to them. Kerala Govt and people of Kerala share all the major dams and river located in the state with Tamil Nadu and Tamil People.
- Siruvani Dam to facilitate the complete drinking water needs of Coimbatore City.
- Parambikulam-Aliyar Reservoir comprising of the Parambikulam Dam, Thunakadavu Dam, Peruvaripallam Dam are all operated by TN for agriculture, irrigation, industrial needs of Coimbatore, Tiruppur and Erode districts.
- Mullaperiyar Dam for the irrigation needs of the southern districts in Tamil Nadu.
- Sharing of dozens interstate rivers and tributaries without any dispute.
DEMAND FOR DECOMMISSION AND PROTEST:
All the agreements that were made under the time of the British are either nullified or have been cancelled immediately after India got independence. Just Imagine if this situation was the other way around, is there any system like this anywhere in the entire 29 states of India?
TN Government's absolute disregard for Kerala’s concern driven mainly by the fact that they need the water and economic benefits that comes with it even if it means an entire state completely suffers can clearly be seen by the way they deal with the issue, milk and exploit it until it is no longer usable or a catastrophe finally happens.
A beautiful analogy: " It's Kerala's cake, but TN gets to eat the WHOLE cake for FREE and if the cake is hollow that will entirely be Kerala's problem, The only reason TN is protesting is that if Kerala bakes a new cake they may have to share or pay for it. Obviously at today's rate. Now who would want that, huh?? "
ANY PERSON IN THE WORLD WILL UNDERSTAND THE ANOMALY IN THIS AGREEMENT, A DAM PRESCRIBED ONLY 50 YEARS LIFETIME BY IT'S ENGINEERS AND CONSTRUCTED USING BRICK, LIMESTONE STONE POWDER AND RUBBLE IS BEING FORCED TO GO ON FOR 1 MILLENNIUM IS THE BIGGEST INJUSTICE EVER.
IT'S HUMAN NATURE OF THE WORLD TO IGNORE REALITIES AND WARNINGS UNTIL THINGS GET SO OUT HAND AND A DISASTER HAPPENS. WE THE PEOPLE OF KERALA DEMAND THAT THE KERALA GOVERNMENT STAND FIRM IN THE DECISION FOR DECOMMISSIONING THE DAM, ALSO CHALLENGE THE VALIDITY OF THIS AGREEMENT FOR 999 YEARS AND GET THE DAM ASSESSED BY INTERNATIONAL AGENCIES ON WHEN IT SHOULD BE DISMANTLED TO BUILD A NEW ONE.
PEOPLE OF KERALA WHO ARE LIVING HERE ALSO PLEAD BEFORE OUR OWN INDIAN GOVERNMENT AND THE HON'BLE SUPREME COURT TO DECOMMISSION THE DAM TO BUILD A NEW ONE AND ALSO UNDERSTAND THAT THIS IS ONE OF THE MOST CORRUPTED AND INJUSTICE AGREEMENTS EVER MADE IN HISTORY THAT HAS BEEN IMPOSED ON A STATE FOR 999 YEARS (10 CENTURIES OR 1 MILLENNIUM) TILL 2885.
PLEASE SUPPORT, SIGN AND SHARE THIS PETITION AS WE WILL CONTINUE TO UPDATE AND GATHER INFORMATION FROM OUR SOURCES AND WILL MAKE SURE THAT ALL PEOPLE FROM KERALA, INDIA ALONG WITH INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS AND MEDIA THROUGHOUT THE WORLD KNOW ABOUT SUCH A HUMAN RIGHT VIOLATION THAT IS HAPPENING HERE.
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