Stop killing animals to create coronavirus vaccine! Use only valid methods

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Stop animal experiments for coronavirus vaccine. It's cruel and counterproductive. 

Thousands of monkeys,  ferrets and other animals  including mice, cats, dogs, chickens, and even horses are being incarcerated and infected to find a coronavirus vaccine globally. Not only do these animals suffer but history suggests that their suffering won't help us. 

We ask that species specific methods such as human cell cultures,  microfluidics and microdosing be used instead. Other methods are listed at end.

Funds and lives are wasted on animal experiments which are a legal device,  not a scientific one.

CRUEL AND COUNTERPRODUCTIVE 

This is what Dr Albert Sabin, creator of the oral polio vaccine had to say under oath… “… prevention [of polio] was long delayed by the erroneous conception qs the nature of the human disease based on misleading experimental models of the disease in monkeys.” Sabin, Albert, MD statement before the subcommittee on Hospitals and Health Care, Committee on Veterans Affairs, House of Representatives, April 26, 1984 serial no. 98-48

"Animal models are not suitable for predicting the immunogenicity of therapeutic mAbs in humans, and transposition of the immunogenic potential of therapeutic antibodies in animals to the human situation has no scientific rationale, even in primates" - Loisel, S., M. Ohresser, M. Pallardy, D. Dayde, C. Berthou, G. Cartron, and H. Watier. 2007. Relevance, advantages and limitations of animal models used in the development of monoclonal antibodies for cancer treatment. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol62 (1):34-42

"The relevance of animal testing, whether artificially created disease models or healthy animals for toxicology, has to be very seriously questioned for testing of human-specific biologic drugs," notes immunotherapeutics expert David Glover. "That's one of the key lessons of TGN1412." Peter Mitchell, Nature Biotechnology25, 485 - 486 (2007)

"...animal studies, even those conducted in non-human primates, have limited predictive power for immunogenicity in humans." Bugelski and Treacy, Current Opinions in Molecular Therapeutics, 6:10-16.

"...it was generally accepted that predicting human immunogenicity, even in non-human primates was rare and thus, the predictive power of preclinical immunogenicity is low." Bugelski & collaborators from Centocor, US FDA, GlaxoSmithKline, Amgen & Pfizer. Predictive Power of Preclinical Data for Human Immunogenicity of Macromolecules: Proceedings of a Roundtable Discussion. (Discussion Macromolecules: Proceedings of a Roundtable Discussion. (Discussion sponsored by the Immunotoxicology Technical Committee Health & Environmental Sciences Institute/ International Life Sciences Institute) 2004

AIDS "To date, 85 candidate AIDS vaccines have been tested in 197 clinical trials, comprising several main types — from inactivated virus vaccines through DNA plasmids to recombinant proteins and viruses. Just 12% of these trials have reached Phase II, only seven (3.5%) have reached Phase III, and alto- gether, 18 trials were prematurely terminated. None has been successful." An assessment of the role of chimpanzees in AIDS vaccine research. Bailey J. Altern Lab Anim. 2008

This sums it up..."If you want your vaccine to work in a human, you’d better get it into a human, quickly. Otherwise you’re going to spend a lot of time with animal studies and never be able to predict what it will do in people." Prof. Bob Edelman, June 2002. http://­www.antigenics.com/­whitepapers/­qs21_adjuvant.html

Infectious disease research
Even chimpanzees, our closest living relative, are immune to the human AIDS virus, Hepatitis B and C, malaria and many other serious human pathogens. It is futile to study infections in animals that do not contract them in any similar way.
Indeed, the US government redirected $10 million of AIDS research funding away from chimpanzee studies after concluding they are a ‘deficient model’.
85 AIDS vaccines have failed in human trials following success in primates.
Again, everything we know about HIV and AIDS has been learned by studying people, through epidemiology and in vitro research on human blood cells.
In the French blood scandal in the 1980s, thousands of people contracted HIV through contaminated blood – given to patients because it was safe in chimps.
The polio vaccine was delayed for decades by ‘the erroneous conception of the nature of the human disease based on misleading experimental models of the disease in monkeys’ according to Albert Sabin MD, the vaccine’s inventor.

BETTER METHODS 

VaxDesign builds “clinical trial in a test-tube” for vaccines
There is an urgent need for technologies that can mimic the human immune system, as time and again animal tests have shown that they are simply not up to the job. An excellent article in Time magazine on 27th March, showed how the answer has now arrived in the shape of a human-relevant, fast test that can be performed entirely by robots, developed by a Florida company called VaxDesign (www.vaxdesign.com

According to William Warren, president, CEO and co-founder of VaxDesign:

“We know animal models do not translate to human responses…Animal models of treatments for HIV to psoriasis and flu are not representative of human responses” (TechJournal South, 2nd October 2007).

The scientists at VaxDesign saw this urgent need for something that was more relevant to people and the MIMIC (Modular IMmune In vitro Constructs) system was born.

MIMIC uses plastic dishes with almost 100 wells in which cells from different human blood samples are grown. This means that you can effectively test the impact of a new vaccine on hundreds of humans, safely and rapidly, before a single volunteer has to be exposed! Scientists at the company are confident that this revolutionary technology therefore offers benefits that animal tests can never hope to provide. Michael Rivard, vice president of corporate development at VaxDesign says that:

“The information you get from this type of test is far and beyond what you’d get out of a mouse study, both because it’s humans and because you can see the effect across a spectrum of genotypes (different genetic make-ups).” (quoted in Time magazine, 27th March)

In March, the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative bestowed its first ever Innovation Award on VaxDesign. Their approach is supported by Wayne Koff, senior vice president of research and development at the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, who commented:

“In the end, you can only extrapolate so much from a monkey model.” (quoted in Time magazine,  27th March)  https://safermedicines.org/medicalresearchnews_archive02/

‘Body on a chip’ uses 3D printed human organs to test vaccines
Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine in North Carolina have used a 3D bio-printer to print organ-like structures made of human cells which mimic the functions of the heart, liver, lung and blood vessels, all linked together with a circulating blood substitute, similar to the type used in trauma surgery.

The blood substitute keeps the cells alive and can be used to introduce toxins, as well as potential treatments – e.g. to test for antidotes to sarin gas – into the system. Sensors which measure temperature, oxygen levels, pH and other factors feed back information on how the organs react and – crucially – how they interact with each other.

Dr Anthony Atala, institute director at Wake Forest and lead investigator on the project, said the technology would be used both to “predict the effects of chemical and biologic agents and to test the effectiveness of potential treatments”.

“You are actually testing human tissue,” he explained. “It works better than testing on animals.”  https://safermedicines.org/medicalresearchnews_index/

https://www.bbc.com/news/technology-24125678

Alternatives in potency testing of other human bacterial and viral vaccines 

Vaccine
Alternative method
Reference
 
 
 
Diphtheria
Vero cells
Toxin Binding Inhibition
Kreeftenberg et al. (27)
Hendriksen et al. (28)
Tetanus
Lf test
Toxin Binding Inhibition
Lying (29)
Hendriksen et al. (30)
Rabies
Antibody binding test
ELISA
Barth et al. (31)
Adamovicz (32)
Yellow Fever
Plaque counting assy
WHO (33)