Protect Our Oceans from Offshore Drilling
No spilling. No killing. No more drilling. The White House released a draft proposal in early January to dramatically expand offshore drilling in 2019. The Trump administration seeks to open up nearly all federal waters to potential oil and gas drilling lease sales. It’s a huge mistake. And we need you to join the chorus of ocean lovers around the nation who are rallying to stop special interests from destroying our coastlines. Please make your voice heard before this dangerous proposal becomes our reality. Oil and water don't mix, as shown by recent spills. And fossil fuel extraction efforts continue to cause extreme economic harm. In 1969, a well blowout off the Santa Barbara coastline pumped nearly 4 million gallons of crude oil into the Pacific and onto the beaches of Southern California. Since then, local lawmakers and the public in California have worked tirelessly to prevent spills and leaks from ruining our environment and $18 billion coastal economy by rejecting any new oil and gas drilling leases offshore in federal waters. A ruptured pipeline spewed over 100,000 gallons of crude oil onto the biologically diverse and pristine Gaviota Coast in 2015, just west of Refugio State Beach near Santa Barbara, California, with an estimated 21,000 gallons reaching the water. The Refugio spill killed hundreds of ocean creatures, closed popular beaches for weeks and shut down fisheries for 138 square miles, severely impacting the area’s commercial and recreational anglers. The catastrophic Deepwater Horizon explosion and spill took 11 lives and caused more than $17 billion in damages to natural resources in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. Let’s not risk another disaster. Now is NOT the time to roll back safety standards and abandon hard-fought protections. California representatives have taken action to safeguard our state waters from drilling out to three miles offshore. Elected officials from other states, including Oregon, Washington, Florida, New York, New Jersey, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina and South Carolina have also vocalized strong opposition to offshore drilling in federal waters, which is seen as an assault on each respective local economy, sovereignty and our invaluable natural resources. We don't have to choose between a bustling national economy and clean, safe and healthy local environments. We can have both. The success of Marine Protected Areas along California's coast proves that making smart investments that protect our environment can benefit fisheries and tourism, while preserving ecological habitats. Ignoring the will of the people, the Trump administration is now unilaterally moving to benefit industry at the expense of the environment. We can’t let it happen. Sign this petition with Heal the Bay, California Coastkeeper Alliance and Surfrider Foundation to demand that the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management "BOEM" and the United States Secretary of the Interior REJECT this proposal to drastically increase offshore drilling.
Allow the Global Supertanker to Fight Fires in Oregon
Wildfires in the state of Oregon are burning out of control. There are over 20 significant fires in the state that are affecting citizens both directly (loss of property/life) and indirectly (health issues due to smoke inhalation). The US Forest Service has access to what is possibly the most powerful wildfire fighting tool in existence; a 747 aircraft capable of dropping far more water/retardant than anything else available today. The US Forestry Service has refused to use this tool due to contract disputes, and their refusal is directly affecting residents in the state of Oregon. This petition is to demand the forest service re evaluate their position on the global supertanker, and utilize this powerful tool to help control the fire situation in the Western U.S., and encourage Governor Brown to work with the Forest Service to give our firefighters the tools they deserve when conditions allow! ***Global Super Tanker Info*** The 747 Super Tanker is capable of delivering 20,000 gallons of retardant anywhere in the United States within 2.5 hours of being called upon. Important dates: January 23, 2016: SuperTanker FAA Initial Flight Test Complete November 25, 2016: Supertanker Deployed to Isreal January 25, 2017: SuperTanker drops on first fire in Chile ***July 27, 2017: SuperTanker approved for flights by USFS*** ***August 27, 2017: SuperTanker activated to fight fire in California*** If you would like more info, please visit their website: http://globalsupertanker.com/b747-400-supertanker/
PLEASE Help the fight to get Christopher and Hunter back to their parents!
Imagine having your newborn baby taken away from you because of a falsely reported phone call to Child Protective Services and what that would feel like. And now imagine that they will not give your child back to you, despite years of jumping through hoops to prove that you are a worthy parent, with no evidence to the contrary. As a mother of two children, I can’t imagine a more terrifying world to live in...and yet, I’ve seen it happen to someone else. I’m here to share that story with you. Before going into the story, it seems fair to briefly tell you about who I am. Besides being a mother of two wonderful grown children, I am a doctoral student with an M.S. NDR (negotiation and dispute resolution), a B.S. in social science/psychology and an associate degree in criminal justice. I have over 20 years of volunteering in non-profit organizations and currently, I work as a Professional Mediator and Life Coach (www.aktionnow.com) I only share this because it helps to know that my education level and field of study qualify me to make these assessments and hopefully brings credibility to the story. I have been volunteering my time with a family as their life coach/mentor. I met them in May 2016 when I was volunteering at the Department of Human Services (DHS) Child Protective Services (CPS) in Bend, Oregon. My position was to monitor parent visitations for families that had their children in the State of Oregon’s custody. I met Amy and Eric when I was the case worker required to observe them during home visits with their nearly 3-year-old son, Christopher, every Friday. Each visit was for three hours, which provided a lot of interaction for me to observe and document. I quickly discovered that this family had no problem at all taking care of their son. They showed loving attention, were attentive to his needs, and at this point had been fighting faithfully in court for almost three years to prove to CPS that they were capable and loving parents. For those of you doing the math, yes, Christopher was removed from them when he was only days old. In my professional opinion, after multiple sessions observing Amy and Eric interact with their son for hours on end, I found no reason they should have had their child taken from them and placed in the State’s care. Any reasonably trained and educated CPS worker should have arrived at the same conclusion, as I documented in the session notes of every visit. The couple demonstrated competent parenting skills with Christopher, had no history of abuse or neglect, and expressed a deep desire to have Christopher returned to them to raise him along with the mother’s twin boys. I would also add that it was apparent from their body language and how they treated each other that the couple was in love, and while that is not a requirement to be a parent, it’s a big bonus for a child. So why was a newborn baby taken away from his mother and father? As the caseworker assigned to the family, I learned their story… Seven days after losing her own mother, Amy Fabbrini (the mother in this story) gave birth to Christopher at home. She was unaware that she was pregnant. Amy suffers from kidney issues (which she says is a genetic thing passed down from her family), causing intense pain at times. She had associated the symptoms of pregnancy with the disorder. After helping with a surprise delivery of his new baby boy, Eric (the father), immediately called 911 and had mother and baby brought to the hospital. Both were in shock of this and were understandably probably affected by this traumatic event. Amy had been living with her parents and her two twin boys after a divorce with the father of the twins. After losing her mother to Alzheimer’s and the surprise addition of a new child, Amy told her father of this event; to hear him tell her that she may not bring the infant back to his home. She was forced to make the decision to move with her twin boys in with her newborn child’s father, Eric. What happens next is what I believe to be a traumatic panic, her grieving father, dealing with the recent death of his wife and now losing the companionship of Amy and the twin boys, called CPS and falsely reported neglect, after he had already known about a falsely reported call from Eric's roommate (after an argument that they had). It sounds confusing but this is the mess the couple was in days after the infant had arrived, without having a chance to settle in as a new family, get adjusted to the idea of a new baby, or get the house ready for such an event, they were dealing with negativity - rather than excitement of a precious little baby boy. Sadly, CPS took infant Christopher, and he has been in foster care ever since. At the time that they took the infant, they also took Amy's twin boys and gave them to her ex-husband who had not really been involved with the boys much. Amy lost all three of her boys within a week after her loss of her mother to Alzheimer's. She was not given grievance counseling or condolences to this day from CPS. Additionally, the parents have complied with all of CPS’s requests from the beginning. There was no abuse. There was no neglect. There was no alcohol or drug use. CPS has simply claimed that they are “retarded” (yes, that was actually the term used by a CPS worker) and that they do not have the intelligence to raise a child. When I questioned this supervisor assigned to the case, he replied with derogatory remarks about the father and mother. I asked why the couple had not been given their child back. His reply shocked me. He said, “Eric is retarded, fat and lazy - he doesn't even brush his teeth. There is no way that I am allowing them to have Christopher.” The way that this supervisor spoke about the parents was anything but professional. It was then that I realized that this couple had been up against a powerful agency that seemed to have little or no accountability. After I had spent almost three months observing this family and reporting weekly on my observations, we learned that none of the reports I had submitted to CPS were given to the court or the attorneys representing each parent. Eric continually asked his attorney to get copies of the reports that I had submitted. After no reports were produced by CPS, Eric’s attorney asked me if I would be willing to testify in court regarding my observations of the visits. I agreed. While on vacation in California, I testified telephonically in court on behalf of Eric and Amy to report my observations that were in the reports which could not be obtained from CPS by either attorney. I reported the interactions that I observed between Eric, Amy and their son, Christopher. I told the judge that I did not understand why CPS had not returned this now almost 3-year-old child back to his parents. Just a few days after I testified in court, I was notified from CPS that they “no longer needed my volunteer help” because they “had recently hired someone for the position.” I was asked to come in and return my key to the building along with all equipment that CPS had given me to use while I was in an observational role. When I got back from my vacation, I met with the supervisor and turned everything in. During that meeting, I asked for clarification as to why I was being released [just days after my testimony] from a “volunteer position,” and why I was being treated so differently by him that afternoon. He only replied with “we have a new hire for your position,” and then said, “I will need to walk you to the door; you now have no clearance to walk freely.” As I walked to the door (which was approximately a football field away in distance), he walked behind me. The feeling from him was cold as if I did something criminal. His demeanor was completely opposite of how he used to conduct himself in my presence. Prior to the testimony, I gave in court, the supervisors would tell me how thankful they were to have me and my expertise. I decided to continue to work with the family as a life coach and mentor, volunteering my time to help them get their son back. Their case with Christopher is currently back in the county courts, after going to the appellate courts and the supreme courts of Oregon. CPS has moved toward adoption, permanently removing the child from them and terminating their rights as parents. Eric has a normal high school diploma and tested in the middle of his class. Amy also has a normal high school diploma. The two of them have newer vehicles, a three-bedroom, two-bath house and live in Redmond, Oregon. Recently, Amy gave birth to another healthy boy, named Hunter. Even though this new baby is viewed as a “new case,” CPS came into the hospital and took Hunter from his parents. They did not do any investigation to see if this child was at risk. They simply took him. When the worker arrived, he was not even prepared to take the newborn infant. He had to ask the hospital for diapers, wipes, blankets, an outfit, formula and did not once ask the nurses about the care of the infant with the parents. I had spent hours with the family in the hospital, and they kept hourly records of their child (e.g., when he nursed, when he wet the diaper when he had a bowel movement, etc.). They were very caring, attentive, happy, and in love with their new baby boy. The night before CPS came to take the child, they informed me that they were coming to take the infant. I offered my home to CPS for the child, and that I would provide 24/7 observation with the family in my home, and that I would work from home to give this mother a chance to bond while CPS did their “investigation.” They refused. The next morning, I emailed the case worker peer-reviewed journal articles explaining the neuroscience regarding the trauma that occurs to an infant when it is taken from his mother, and how the first several weeks are a very crucial time for nutrition (from breast milk), bonding and attachment development. He emailed me back with, “Can I call you?” However, he never called. He came that day at 2:00 pm and took the infant. In court the next Tuesday we pleaded to have the child returned to me as a caregiver so that Amy could nurse and bond with the infant. The judge agreed to have CPS perform a background on me and encouraged the infant to return to the mother with 24/7 monitoring until CPS was done with their investigation. To this day, they still have not performed a background check on me. I have sent probably 20 emails. We are now asking for an expedited court date and want to expose this case. It is criminal and inhumane what CPS is doing. If you have any ideas; (i.e. contacts for news stories, lawyers, or other organizations that you feel you can connect me to; I would be most appreciative. Please send all inquiries to firstname.lastname@example.org See updates on news coverage and up to date info and news investigations https://www.facebook.com/ReturnChrisandHunter/ Thank you so much for your support!!!
Pass Melissa's Law in Oregon
On December 13th, 2001, our 14-year-old daughter Melissa was tragically raped, sodomized, and murdered in the backyard of a neighbor while on her way to school. The loss of Melissa could have been prevented, if all rape kits were processed by Portland police. In 1997, three teenagers were dragged behind houses and raped. Two rape kits were not processed until years later, after Melissa was murdered, finally connecting them to our case. Had they been tested with urgency, her killer would most likely have been in jail and not free to kill our daughter. We expect police to test rape kits in a timely and efficient manner; but this is not the case. In July of 2002 we were assured by law enforcement that the backlog of rape kits would be processed. Now in 2016, there are twice as many backlogged. We’re calling on the Oregon House to pass Melissa’s Bill, which will require police to pick up rape kits within seven days of a hospital alerting them and submit the kit for testing within 14 days of receipt. Melissa’s Bill will also provide $1.5 million to the state crime lab to hire nine new DNA and biology evidence technicians to help process the kits. State police will be required to give annual updates to lawmakers on the progress of their testing of kits. In Portland alone there are over 2,000 backlogged and untested rape kits. There are 5,000 throughout the state. This is unacceptable. Melissa’s Bill was just passed by the Oregon Senate. We’re so close to getting it passed in the House and signed into law. That’s why your signature is so important. No family should have to go through a loss like ours. Please sign our petition and ask the Oregon House to pass Melissa’s Bill. Mary Bittler, Tom Bittler & Teresa McPherson
Stop Kate Brown from turning her back on Oregon's mental health crisis!
Kate Brown is proposing shutting down the Junction City Mental Health Hospital that she spent $130 million dollars building just 18 short months ago; not to mention displacing the 422 employees that work there. Her proposed budget increases school funding 9% to just over $8 billion dollars while shutting down a greatly needed facility that will only save $34.5 million dollars a year. Did I mention that she is also proposing to shut down a youth offenders facility in Warrenton and trim state funding to Oregon's Community Care organizations ? Where are your priorities Kate? She wants to raise taxes by $900 million, and raise reserves to over $1 billion which will be the biggest stock pile in the states history. Even without Kate's tax increases, general fund revenues are projected to be 8.3% higher ($19.45 billion) in the 2017-19 than in the current two-year budget. Kate is turning her back on the mental health crisis that Oregon is faced with. Stand together and stop her madness!
Help us remove the statute of limitations of rape and sexual felonies for victims in Oregon
With the world sitting and watching in horror as one of the worst sexual abuse scandals in the history of the US Olympics unfold, it has also opened a whole new door on this "silenced subject" and is demanding a spot light on sexual abuse, victims, survivors and it's abusers. A movement is beginning! With that being said, I am starting a petition addressing "Oregon's statute of limitation" that has stopped us in our tracks from being able to face and prosecute our abusers. Each state's statute of limitation is different. We plan to change that and lift the statute of limitation so that those who suffered sexual abuse, can finally be heard. We will need as many signatures as possible to present this to our Governor and representatives. Please stand with me, and have your voice be heard. Once and for all.Thank you all in advance ♡#Metoo As a victim and survivor of sexual abuse as a child for over 10 years, Oregon statute of limitation laws prevent us from facing and convicting our abusers. Most victims and survivors of abuse cannot even fathom coming forward and talking about the abuse that they endured until later in life. Whether it's after years of extensive counseling, relationships, becoming husbands and/or wives, having children of our own or just finally building up the courage to talk about it. In most cases, these choices do not happen until later in life. For me, it did not happen until I reached my mid-30s. When only then, I found that Oregon statute of limitations completely stopped me in my tracks from finally building up the courage to face and prosecute my abusers. To hear the words "Too much time has gone by and nothing can be done" was almost as bad as being abused all over again, for me, and so many others. These abusers cannot continue to walk free in society any longer just because we weren't ready to face them. Please give us the chance to do so now, as we deserve.
Oregon Carbon Tax
Climate change is a very pressing issue in the world today. Everyone will experience the effects of climate change, and many people already have. Glaciers are melting and sea levels are rising causing the destruction of homes on many islands and in many coastal communities. Weather patterns are changing leading to an adaptation in where certain crops can be grown. This means many farms will have to switch the crops they produce, and some areas will no longer be able to grow crops at all. If we allow the fossil fuel industries to continue to wield their financial power in order to exercise control over governments and politicians, it will only get worse. Your children and grandchildren are likely to live in a world in which devastating natural disasters occur often and the only living animals are those that humans made sure would not go extinct. It is not too late to do our part, to make a difference, and to fight for a better future. One way a number of communities are fighting is by paying a carbon tax. If everyone, individuals and businesses alike, are legally required to pay a tax on the greenhouse gases they put into the atmosphere they will be motivated to reduce the pollution they produce. We, the undersigned, want our state, Oregon, to start paying a carbon tax and leading the rest of our country and the world toward a future in which we can live in peace with the environment and no longer have to fear the effects of climate change.
Please sign to help that child abusers perpetrators are punished to the fullest sentencing
A parents worst nightmare;On November 19, 2017 my two and half year old son Ezra suffered a traumatic brain injury due to being abused by my ex-boyfriend. My son Ezra underwent several surgeries during our stay at the hospital. Ezra had emergency brain surgery where they removed his right bone flap (skull) due to the swelling, they also removed a blood clot and about a half cup of blood from his head. The next day, They put a intraventricular catheter like tube in his brain to help the pressure in his head. We were told Ezra wasn’t going to make it through the night or if he did he would be in a vegetable state. I didn’t care what they said, I wasn’t going to give up On Ezra. Over the next week we had talks with the doctors who were talking to us about Ezra’s quality of life and how things could be and if we wanted to continue forward knowing that he might not ever wake up, open his eyes, move, breath on his own, and how he might need machines to live. But, I didn’t care I was going to do whatever was medically necessary to keep my son alive. The first week was absolute hell!! You can’t do anything but watch hopelessly while your son is fighting for his life. Your just sitting there wondering if your son is going to make it or not. You sit there knowing your little boy you know and love is gone forever and you’ll never get him back. As the days went on things got better, Ezra did little things like open his eyes here and there. He would move a body part once in a while little things that meant everything to us. So as Ezra was improving he need more surgeries to move forward with his road to recovery. Ezra had a tracheostomy placed(breathing tube), G-tube (Feeding tube) they, put his right bone flap(skull) back in his head. He had a shunt placed to drain access brain fluid, and also another surgery to recoil the shunt to one that they can adjust if needed. So I am asking for this petition to be signed to give perpetrators of child abuse a more more severe punishment because it’s not fair they get to live semi- normal life in prison while my child’s and others children’s/families life’s are forever changed because of abuse. We need to be the advocates for them and be their voice so we can be heard and put an end to child abuse Thank you for reading our story, and please sign for my son and other children/ families affected by child abuse. The POS who did this is facing a maximum of only 60-90 months!!! My sons life is forever changed, and that’s all he’s facing. Child abuse is real and it can happen to anyone. #TeamEzra #JusticeForEzra#PrayersForEzra #ChildAbuseSurvivor #SignForTheChange -Kaytlynne
Reckless and Negligent Actions to Kill and/or Injure Passengers of LaVoy Finicum Vehicle
On January 26, 2016, driver LaVoy Finicum and four (4) passengers: Ryan Payne, Shawna Cox, Victoria Sharp (an 18 year old singer who had missed her ride with family) and Ryan Bundy, were traveling to John Day, Oregon, to deliver a presentation on the constitutional support of their actions. About 50 miles from their destination, they were stopped by unmarked vehicles and armed persons in civilian clothes (OSP & FBI). Upon sticking his unarmed hands out of the window, Ryan Payne attempted to communicate with individuals who had caused the stop and was immediately met by a gunshot which hit the side view mirror. Because of a "shoot now, ask questions later" intent by the shooters, the driver, LaVoy Finicum decided to try and reach the town of John Day, seeking intervention from the local sheriff. A few miles ahead, they met a roadblock and were again detained in a deep snowbank. For extensive evidence of the illegality of the roadblock, refer to https://www.facebook.com/loren.pearce3/posts/10208252511221071 Shots were fired at the truck from the beginning and even after LaVoy Finicum was neutralized, multiple shots were fired at the truck, which was stuck in the snow. Shots continued at the truck for several minutes until the screams of the passengers caused a pause. A lethal, metal bullet lodged in Ryan Bundy's shoulder, not a rubber bullet. The acts of the shooters manifest a wanton and criminal reckless disregard for the life and welfare of the passengers who were trapped in a disabled vehicle. The shooters had no idea who the passengers were, what their intent was or if they had been killed or injured. No passenger brandished a gun nor shouted any threats, rather they pleaded for mercy and for cessation of the shooting. Law enforcement manuals and court cases across the nation severely condemn unnecessary and excessive force when passengers are present and when there is no threat of harm to the officer(s). Even when a vehicle is still operable and/or still moving, most courts do not approve of shooting at passengers. In this case, the driver was down, the car disabled and the passengers showed not the slightest hint of threat to anybody. Nevertheless, the vehicle was blasted with a barrage of lethal bullets. If the American people were to allow such behavior without severe punishment to the offenders, a new precedent would be established that puts all of our lives in danger as more law enforcement are emboldened by their immunity from punishment. We call on Governor Kate Brown, FBI Director James B. Comey and other state and federal authorities to: 1. Protect all evidence from spoilation and tampering 2. Investigate the forensic evidence 3. Release all videos and audio recordings of the incident including that of the passengers 4. Punish the offenders, including those in charge, with the maximum penalties the law allows. For an eyewitness account please see: https://www.facebook.com/105477983124317/videos/vb.105477983124317/226748380997276/?type=2&theater We plan to file a Criminal Complaint with the United States District Court for Oregon and seek a Federal Grand Jury Indictment of OSP and FBI and others responsible for the violation of the Rights of those in the vehicle(s) stoped in a January 26, 2016 Road Block on Hwy 395 in Oregon in which LaVoy Finicum was killed. For Violation of: U.S.C. TITLE 18 - Section § 241. Conspiracy against rightsIf two or more persons conspire to injure, oppress, threaten, or intimidate any inhabitant of any State, Territory, or District in the free exercise or enjoyment of any right or privilege secured to him by the Constitution or laws of the United States, or because of his having so exercised the same; or If two or more persons go in disguise on the highway, or on the premises of another, with intent to prevent or hinder his free exercise or enjoyment of any right or privilege so secured - They shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both; and if death results, they shall be subject to imprisonment for any term of years or for life. U.S.C. TITLE 18 - Section § 242. Deprivation of rights under color of lawWhoever, under color of any law, statute, ordinance, regulation, or custom, willfully subjects any inhabitant of any State, Territory, or District to the deprivation of any rights, privileges, or immunities secured or protected by the Constitution or laws of the United States, or to different punishments, pains, or penalties, on account of such inhabitant being an alien, or by reason of his color, or race, than are prescribed for the punishment of citizens, shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both; and if bodily injury results shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both; and if death results shall be subject to imprisonment for any term of years or for life.By signing this petition, you support our Action to be filed in the United States Court for the District of Oregon to demand a Grand Jury. Thank You
Tell blue states to form an interstate single-payer healthcare system for their residents
We call on Governors Jerry Brown of California, Andrew Cuomo of New York, Charlie Baker of Massachusetts, Dannel Malloy of Connecticut, and governors of other Democratic states to explore the possibility of forming an interstate, single-payer healthcare system for their residents. Ideally, this system would provide ALL residents of these states equal, quality health coverage which would be accepted in any of these states. It would be funded by the collective healthcare budgets of these states, as well as reallocated federal funding for programs such as Medicaid. According to a Gallup poll published on May 16, 2016, 58% of Americans say that they would prefer to replace the Affordable Care Act (ACA) with a federally funded healthcare system that provides insurance for all Americans. However, Congress has been in a deadlock on this issue for decades. Switching from the current system -- a hodgepodge of employer-based and subsidized care for the most needy -- to single-payer has for many seemed too drastic a change for Congress to successfully implement nationally. A few states, including CA, MA, VT, and CO have discussed or tried to establish single-payer systems confined to their own states. But such systems have been bombarded with budget concerns and do not create a clear path to single-payer on the national level. In light of this, we propose that by first forming an interstate single-payer system among a few powerful blue states, the country can gradually and steadily replace the current system with an efficient, potentially national, single-payer system as more and more states, including red states, will want to join in years to come if they see it is working well. Call it AmeriCare? Furthermore, we believe it would be in the interest of our states to be part of initiating this project. If acted upon, it would uniquely provide all the benefits of single-payer to residents and businesses, and show that our states are leading the way in reform on this important issue. FAQ: Why CA, NY, MA, and CT? I want my state in too. The author of this petition has lived in the four states mentioned, hence why they were selected, but governors of other states are on this petition's list of recipients. And residents of all states are welcome to sign and encourage their states to join too! Is this constitutional? It appears so. This would likely be an interstate compact, which Congress has the power to allow. See: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interstate_compact