Acknowledge Clostridium diffiicle (A.K.A., C. difficile, C.diff.) as a global epidemic
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In the USA alone nearly half a million Americans suffer from Clostridium difficile (C. diff.) infections in a single year according to a study released February 25, 2015 by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). **Approximately 29,000 patients died within 30 days of the initial diagnosis of C. difficile. Of those, about 15,000 deaths were estimated to be directly attributable to C. difficile infections (CDI), making C. difficile a very important cause of infectious disease death in the United States alone. More than 80 percent of the deaths associated with C. difficile occurred among Americans aged 65 years or older. C. difficile causes an inflammation of the colon and deadly diarrhea. Over 14,000 England there were 14 000 cases in 2013-14,. Clostridium difficile (aka C. difficile, C. diff., CDI) symptoms most commonly experienced is the excessive diarrhea with abdominal cramping/pain, accompanied by nausea, fever, elevated White Blood Cell Count. These symptoms can advance quickly to toxic megacolon and Pseudomembranous colitis which may lead to surgical intervention and can be fatal. Clostridium difficile afflicts infants, children, adults, and pets.
Previous studies indicate that Clostridium difficile has become the most common microbial cause of healthcare-associated infections in U.S. hospitals and costs up to $4.8 billion each year, EU € 3 billion and expected to increase on a global range, in excess health care costs for acute care facilities alone. The Clostrrdium difficile diagnosis weighs heavy upon individuals and their families. Wages are lost, healthcare insurance is lost, independence is lost, lives are being lost. The community with local and state government programs are also becoming resources for the patient and their families for a multitude of health, financial, and housing support.
Current Treatments are limited and few are meeting the goals of long-term cures..
-Totally eliminating C. diff spores is extremely difficult because they can survive routine environmental cleaning with detergents, as well as hand sanitization with alcohol based gels.(2)
- CDI can be treated with an appropriate course (approximately
10 days) of antibiotics (2) C. difficile infection returns in around 25-30% of patients who receive such treatment.
- Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been used as a treatment modality in patients with severe, recurrent Clostridium difficile diagnosis (3).
- In some cases, removing the colon may be required as the risk of perforation increases due to the high fatality rate associated with ruptures.(2).
Clostridium difficile (C.difficile, C.diff.) needs to be identified as a global epidemic so that new novel therapies such as ribaxamase (SYN-004), ridinilazole (SMT19969), RBX2660 RBX7455, NTCD-M3, SER 109 & SER 262, DAV132, FMT, and the Clostridium difficile vaccines Cdiffense and PF-06425090 can be fast tracked through clinical trials. It would be beneficial to make global changes in Clostridium difficile monitoring, reducing risks, expanding education and awareness, and increase medical and clinical management for prevention, treatments, and environmental safety. Time is of the essence! Clostridium difficile preventatives and treatments are needed today because tomorrow is too long to wait..
2)Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Frequently Asked Questions about Clostridium difficile for Healthcare Providers.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/HAI/organisms/cdiff/Cdiff_faqs_HCP.html Last Updated March 6, 2013. Accessed May20, 2013.
3)Rohlke F and Stollman N. Fecal microbiota transplantation in relapsing Clostridium difficile infection. Therap Adv Gastroente
rol. 2012 November; 5(6): 403–420. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3491681/#bibr37 1756283X12453637. Accessed May 20, 2013.
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