AN APPEAL TO OUR PRIME MINISTER ON WATER CONSERVATION
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AN APPEAL TO OUR HON’BLE PRIME MINISTER BY A SENIOR CITIZEN
Respected Prime Minister Narendra Modiji,
In your next MANN KI BATH Address, kindly give Thoughts on ‘WATER’.
Water is the Elixir of life –Leonardo da Vinci
The Next decade will see tremendous pressure on Water. According to UN, every 5th person on the earth will be affected by Water.
WATER CONSERVATION – NEED OF THE HOUR.
In Many institutions(Like Colleges) for Gardening pumped water is used. Grey water for gardening makes sense. For hand wash we use soap liquid. This liquid soap consumes more water for washing hands. I use Soap nut/shikakai powder which consumes less water. In villages/small towns women clean the houses floor on mostly Fridays with water This consumes much water. Mopping will reduce water consumption. The amount of water that is wasted during dish washing at home is significant. We need to change our dish washing methods and minimize the habit of keeping the water running. A small step here can make a significant saving in water consumption.
Every independent home/flat and group housing colony must have rain water harvesting facility. If efficiently designed and properly managed, this alone can reduce the water demand significantly.
Waste water treatment and recycling for non-drinking purposes. Several low cost technologies are available that can be implemented in group housing areas
Rainwater Harvesting :
Rainwater harvesting is the gathering and collection of water from the rooftop. The traditional method of rain water harvesting is the most effective and simple way to conserve the water. It means utilization of rain water for the domestic as well as agricultural purposes. There are three technical methods of rain water harvesting such as Catchment, Conveyance and storage.
Historical Water Bodies :
There are many traditional water bodies which have been in disuse for the longer time. These bodies can be reused as the recharging points.
Steps should be taken to avoid dumping of sewage into the village ponds. Efforts need to be made to deepen these ponds with the dragline machines. Garbage and other waste should not be dumped into the ponds.
I visited Israel and could see the amazing feats in their agricultural methods.
I have innovations in water conservation:
INNOVATIVE USED TUBE MULCHING EFFICIENT VEGETABLE GROWING TO CONSERVE WATER
It is well known much water is wasted as evaporation in open farming besides water seepage and weed growth. I have found a simple,innovative, cost effective and reliable system to overcome this.
Used and discarded Car tube is taken and 2 inches diameter holes (4) are made each opposite one(like +) and filled with natural organic soil(in my case I filled it with soil mixed with biogas sludge). At the bottom the small screw(air Pin) will help to drain out excess water. Vegetables like tomato,beans,Bhendi etc. and flowering plants like roses can be raised (Refer picture). In this case to feed feriliser(natural it is mixed in water and supplied. Since nutrients are supplied right near the root they won’t go deep and spread sideways.
One can go for bigger size farming and even hybrid plants in a big used tube of Tractors.
1,. Used car/ motor cycle/ tractor tubes are available cheap
2. Saves water by avoiding evaporation and water seepage
3. Occupies less space
4. The system can be made by everybody
5. Durable and reliable
7. Nutrients can be supplied right near the roots
8. there is provision to take out excess water
9. In school Gardens it can be adopted
10. Useful on the terrace and in backyard
11.Higher growth compared to normal method
12.Compared to plastic mulch this rubber tube will lost longer and won’t degrade.
Irrigation sprinklers are sprinklers providing irrigation to vegetation, or for recreation, as a cooling system, or for the control of airborne dust. The sprinkler system irrigates the field and thus it is widely used in sandy areas as it checks the wastage of water through seepage and evaporation. Sprinkler irrigation is a method of applying irrigation water which is similar to natural rainfall. Water is distributed through a system of pipes usually by pumping. It is then sprayed into the air through sprinklers so that it breaks up into small water drops which fall to the ground. The pump supply system, sprinklers and operating conditions must be designed to enable a uniform application of water.
Drip irrigation, that saves water and fertilizer by allowing water to drip slowly to the roots of many different plants, either onto the soil surface or directly onto the root zone, through a network of valves, pipes, tubing, and emitters. It is done through narrow tubes that deliver water directly to the base of the plant.
Combining these two methods a simple ,innovative BHAGEERATH Water irrigation system has been designed by Dr.A.Jagadeesh
The system consists of 75 litre capacity HDP Tank with cover and on the top provided a small vent to create pressure. In the bottom a tap of ¾ inch) is provided with a tube and a shower(normally used in shower bath) is attached. The Whole set up is placed in the Centre of a garden at an elevation to create pressure.
The plants are first sprayed with water and then at the roots as drip irrigation. The shower can be tilted.
Saves a lot of water.
All the materials are available locally
It can be fabricated in local Workshops
Small gardens,vegetables Growers can adopt this method.
Since the tank can be placed at the centre,reaching to plants is easy(less strain)
This system costs about Rs 600.
The investment can be recovered in a year.
I developed Vertical Farming using Stand and Racks. These are very useful for home gardens and small vegetable growers.
PROVIDING LOANS TO SMALL AND MEDIUM FARMERS TO USE PVC PIPES FOR IRRIGATION:
In most of our fields small and medium farmers run water in open canal which has disadvantages:
1. Water seepage
2. Water Evaporation
3. Weeds on the sides of the canals (which take away sizeable quantity of Water)
3 We used earlier cement pipes but the coconut trees planted near the piped canal roots penetrated into the cement canal and the cement piped were broken and leaking. The solution lies in going in for PVC pipes. AQ Scheme can be chalked by the Government to give soft loans with subsidy to purchase PVC Pipes. This saves enormous quantity of water rather than INKUDU GUNTALU in towns and Cities.
CAM PLANTS CONSERVE WATER
RESOURCES AND DEMAND
The overall water balance in India also looks unsustainable. India has 17 per cent of global population, and only 4 per cent of global freshwater supply. Till now, the response of the state with regard to the water stress/challenge has generally been to look for ‘quick fix' solutions.
And these solutions are — a new dam, inter-basin transfers, or a desalination plant, etc. However, what is becoming increasingly clear is that, in many cases, such solutions are actually a zero sum game. Often, they solve one person's problem at the expense of someone elsewhere.
Moreover, such measures are generally expensive and seldom generate sufficient revenue to cover their cost. Thus, the fiscal burden for such interventions inevitably falls on taxpayers, adding more pressure to public budgets. Also, development of water resources in this manner runs the risk of locking countries into patterns of development that rely on ever-increasing water supply.
The growing demand for water is, therefore, unlikely to be met by primarily focusing on either the new water resources, or expanding the existing water resources. The need is to change the way water resources are used, consumed, priced and managed, as the societal needs change. It is high time that the water-related risks are identified first, and public policies are framed accordingly, so that it stimulates efficient use of water amongst its various users/stakeholders.
NASA EARTH OBSERVATORY
Effects of Changing the Carbon Cycle
All of this extra carbon needs to go somewhere. So far, land plants and the ocean have taken up about 55 percent of the extra carbon people have put into the atmosphere while about 45 percent has stayed in the atmosphere. Eventually, the land and oceans will take up most of the extra carbon dioxide, but as much as 20 percent may remain in the atmosphere for many thousands of years.
The changes in the carbon cycle impact each reservoir. Excess carbon in the atmosphere warms the planet and helps plants on land grow more. Excess carbon in the ocean makes the water more acidic, putting marine life in danger.
It is significant that so much carbon dioxide stays in the atmosphere because CO2 is the most important gas for controlling Earth’s temperature. Carbon dioxide, methane, and halocarbons are greenhouse gases that absorb a wide range of energy—including infrared energy (heat) emitted by the Earth—and then re-emit it. The re-emitted energy travels out in all directions, but some returns to Earth, where it heats the surface. Without greenhouse gases, Earth would be a frozen -18 degrees Celsius (0 degrees Fahrenheit). With too many greenhouse gases, Earth would be like Venus, where the greenhouse atmosphere keeps temperatures around 400 degrees Celsius (750 Fahrenheit).
Rising concentrations of carbon dioxide are warming the atmosphere. The increased temperature results in higher evaporation rates and a wetter atmosphere, which leads to a vicious cycle of further warming. (Photograph ©2011Patrick Wilken.)
Because scientists know which wavelengths of energy each greenhouse gas absorbs, and the concentration of the gases in the atmosphere, they can calculate how much each gas contributes to warming the planet. Carbon dioxide causes about 20 percent of Earth’s greenhouse effect; water vapor accounts for about 50 percent; and clouds account for 25 percent. The rest is caused by small particles (aerosols) and minor greenhouse gases like methane.
Water vapor concentrations in the air are controlled by Earth’s temperature. Warmer temperatures evaporate more water from the oceans, expand air masses, and lead to higher humidity. Cooling causes water vapor to condense and fall out as rain, sleet, or snow.
Carbon dioxide, on the other hand, remains a gas at a wider range of atmospheric temperatures than water. Carbon dioxide molecules provide the initial greenhouse heating needed to maintain water vapor concentrations. When carbon dioxide concentrations drop, Earth cools, some water vapor falls out of the atmosphere, and the greenhouse warming caused by water vapor drops. Likewise, when carbon dioxide concentrations rise, air temperatures go up, and more water vapor evaporates into the atmosphere—which then amplifies greenhouse heating.
So while carbon dioxide contributes less to the overall greenhouse effect than water vapor, scientists have found that carbon dioxide is the gas that sets the temperature. Carbon dioxide controls the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere and thus the size of the greenhouse effect.
Rising carbon dioxide concentrations are already causing the planet to heat up. At the same time that greenhouse gases have been increasing, average global temperatures have risen 0.8 degrees Celsius (1.4 degrees Fahrenheit) since 1880.
WHEN YOU CAN’T SOLVE PROBLEMS THROUGH LABORATORY TURN TO NATURE:
Many a times complex problems can be solved with simple solutionsfrom ‘nature’. Nature is the biggest laboratory.
Since a Decade I have had been advocating Growing CAM Plants like Sisal Agave and Opuntia(Cactus) which are of care-free growth,regenerative and can be put to multiple uses. Being desert plants they are best suited for vast waste lands in Developing countries. Here is an analysis on the multiple uses of the plants which will also act as “Carbon Sink”.
CAM plants close their stomata during the day, when evaporation rates are highest, to conserve water. Most CAM plants are native to arid regions, like deserts.
CAM means Crassulacean acid metabolism; the name comes from the succulent family Crassulaceae. The stomata, or leaf pores, of most plants remain open throughout the day and night to take in carbon dioxide, resulting in a loss of 97 percent of the plant's water. Desert plants cannot tolerate the same level of water loss and can only open their stomata at night. This decreases the amount of carbon dioxide that CAM plants pull from the atmosphere. To cope with this, CAM plants convert the carbon dioxide they take in during the night into malic acid and store it in vacuoles; later, during the day, the acid breaks down again into carbon dioxide and the light reactions of photosynthesis begin.
In some ways, CAM photosynthesis is more efficient than other forms of photosynthesis because it concentrates the amount of carbon available at the beginning of the Calvin cycle. It is, however, slower at sugar production overall, meaning that CAM plants tend to grow more slowly than other plants. Because CAM plants have so much energy investment in their mass, they often produce defensive spines and chemicals for protection.
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