Critical Indian Elephant Habitat Threatened Again - Abhishek Kadyan
More than 6,000 Asian elephants and hundreds of tigers still roam wild in South India, but rampant development and rapidly growing villages in the Sigur region of the Nilgiri foothills are choking off critical access corridors utilized by elephants to travel between still viable habitat areas. Following a 2006 national government declaration to protect elephant corridors (which Ecological Internet and YOU played a critical role in achieving), the Madras High Court of Tamil Nadu in 2010 issued an order to declare the Sigur Region an Elephant Corridor to regulate development and other activities affecting elephant habitat. Nevertheless, vested interests are vigorously opposing the order, causing the Government of India's Ministry of Environment and Forests to delay action.
The Asian elephant once ranged widely throughout tropical and subtropical Asia, but its numbers have steadily declined from an estimated 200,000 in the early 1900s to about 25,000–33,000 in the 2000s, a decline of over 80% within a century. The Indian subcontinent has the largest population of Asian elephants with population estimates ranging from 26,000 to 31,000. The major cause of the decline has been loss and fragmentation of habitat. Expanding settlements and changing land use patterns have restricted traditional elephant migration routes, and thus gene flows, threatening the long-term viability of wild elephant populations in India. Elephant habitat aligns with important ecosystems maintaining India's ecological sustainability - such as clean water, air, and soil - and thus their full protection and restoration is clearly in the long-term national interest.
Few regions in the world are more important for the Asian elephant and the tiger than the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve (NBR) in southern India. Located in the middle of the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot, this region harbors the world’s largest population of Asian elephants (more than 6,000) and about 400 tigers. Sigur’s local elephant corridors are important components of a larger vital corridor of national importance. The Sigur Region is also the only link between the remaining protected areas in two major biogeographical zones - the Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats - and three states, and links thousands of elephants. Despite being part of a biosphere reserve, the Sigur Region has recently been marred by major hydroelectric and tourism development. Recently the area was threatened by a proposed Neutrino Observatory that would have brought in 100,000 construction workers, trucks and equipment. The project was shifted elsewhere due to public pressure by Ecological Internet and others.
India’s Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) issued a directive to India’s state governments to protect elephant corridors in 2006 (letter no. 2-15/2002-PE dated 11-08-2006). In 2010 the Tamil Nadu State government issued an order to declare the Sigur Region an Elephant Corridor in order to regulate development and other activities affecting elephant habitat. Opponents to the law filed a petition in the Supreme Court falsely claiming the area was not recognized as an Elephant Corridor. The High Court of Madras, on 25th February 2010, concluded that the state government is empowered to declare such protected areas. The issue went to the Supreme Court, which referred the matter to the National Board for Wildlife (NBWL), which supported the elephant corridor and endorsed the findings of the expert committee appointed by the Madras High Court. Given these years of deliberative democratic processes, and substantial public support, it is well past time for the Ministry of Environment and Forests, India to stop delaying and pave the way for the Tamilnadu State Government to protect and restore Sigur’s important elephant corridors and habitats. This alert calls upon the Ministry not to delay this process further.
Please send a letter to the national Minister of Environment and Forests, cc'ed to many other important decision-makers on the matter, urging her to ensure the Tamil Nadu state government immediately implements the law to protect the Sigur Elephant Corridor from further development, and to begin critical restoration of this and other vital elephant habitat, and particularly corridors.
- The Director, Animal Welfare Division.
- The Prime Minister of India, New Delhi.
Hon'ble Sardar Manmohan Singh
- HE The President of India, New Delhi
Her Excellency Smt. Pratibha Devisingh Patil
- HE The Vice President of India, New Delhi.
HE Shri Hamid Ansari
- The Joint Secretary, Ministry for Environment and Forest
- Minister for Environment and Forest, New Delhi.
Hon'ble Smt. Jayanthi Natarajan
- Chief Minister's Office Secretariat
- Principal Secretary to Government
- Representative of OIPA in India
Shri Naresh Kadyan
- Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu
Selvi J. Jayalalithaa
It has come to my attention that the Tamil Nadu State government has not enacted the Madras High Court’s order to designate and protect the Sigur Region as an Elephant Corridor, as their action has been stayed by the Supreme Court based on a writ petition by the tourism lobby. As a result, thousands of elephants in the rapidly developing Sigur Region are threatened by habitat loss and degradation, along with the resulting isolation and genetic non-viability of smaller populations. Your Ministry of Environment and Forests must stop stalling the process based upon pressure from the tourism lobby. I am writing to request that without further delay you fully exercise the power of your national office to ensure that the vital Sigur elephant corridor is fully protected and restored.
The Sigur Region is of national ecological importance, and a crucial corridor for the Asian elephant. That more than 6000 elephants still roam wild in the foothills of South India’s Nilgiri Mountains is a monumental achievement of the Indian conservation movement. The region's natural ecosystems are the only link between the remaining protected areas in two major biogeographical zones - the Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats - and three states, and links thousands of elephants. Elephant habitat closely aligns with important ecosystems maintaining your great nation's ecological sustainability - such as clean water, air, and soil - and their full protection and restoration is clearly in India's long-term national interest.
Elephant corridor legislation is an expression of the will of the people of India and of the people of Tamil Nadu. I implore you to please immediately implement the law to protect the Sigur Elephant Corridor from further incursions, and begin critical restoration of this and other elephant habitat nationally. The world is watching and expecting you to act with great urgency to protect India’s sacred natural Asian elephant populations.
We appreciate OIPA chapter in India and PFA Haryana founder Naresh Kadyan, Abhishek Kadyan and Sukanya Kadyan for their tireless services for animals and their welfare in India.
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