Topic

human rights

22 petitions

Started 1 week ago

Petition to

Kindly Deploy Starlink to End Information blackout in Afghanistan , Elon

This letter is intended to humbly request his excellency Elon Musk to deploy Starlink internet to Afghanistan to end the Taliban's information blockade.  Since the United States handed Afghanistan over to the Taliban, an organization whose senior leaders have FBI bounties on their heads, the Taliban has carefully controlled the flow of information to the outside world.  There are "credible allegations," as stated by the United Nations and Amnesty International, that the Taliban have executed people who worked with the deposed government. In a report, Secretary-General Antonio Guterres said that "more than two-thirds" of the deaths were likely the result of "extrajudicial killings" by the Taliban or its allies. This is despite the fact that the Taliban had announced "general amnesties" for people who worked for the previous administration and for the US-led coalition forces. SpaceX possesses the ability to guarantee human security. It has already demonstrated its human-centeredness by offering Starlink internet access to Ukrainians. The people of Afghanistan have been subjected to widespread violence and retaliation in the aftermath of each round of fighting. This is anticipated to be far worse due to a lack of information and Taliban control, whose modus operandi is violence. In light of this, we respectfully request SpaceX and Elon Musk to donate Starlink internet kits to Afghanistan and end information injustice.

Ali Arifi
19 supporters
Update posted 2 months ago

Petition to 内閣総理大臣 安倍晋三, 厚生労働大臣 塩崎恭久, 加藤勝信

息子の死を無駄にしないために日本の精神科医療の身体拘束を見直してください。

去年の五月、日本で英語教師として働いていた私の息子、ケリー・サベジが神奈川県の精神科病院で入院中に心肺停止で見つかり、その後亡くなりました。 10日あまり精神科病棟で入院していたところの、突然の出来事でした。 ケリーが入院していた病院に、亡くなった原因の調査や、身体拘束の方針の見直しについて求めていますが、満足の行く回答をもらえていません。 交換留学で日本人の高校生を家族で受け入れて以来、ケリーは日本が大好きになり、折り紙やトトロなど日本の映画を見ては、日本文化に魅了されていきました。高校、大学を通して日本語を学び、日本で英語教師になるため資格を取り、鹿児島の小中学校で2年ほど子供たちに英語を教えてきました。同僚の先生方や生徒たちにもとても好かれていました。 そんな中うつ病が再発し、日本の病院で入院しましたが、2週間経たないうちに心肺停止で発見されました。入院直後から足、腰、手首を拘束されてベッドに寝かされていたようです。 実は日本の精神科医療の現場では、他国に比べて身体拘束の時間が著しく長いことが調査でわかっています。 日本での身体拘束の平均実施日数は、11病院の689の患者を対象に行った調査によると96日でした[1]。一方、諸外国の実施時間はせいぜい数時間から数十時間です。 精神科に入院する人は一握りだと思われるかもしれませんが、実は日本の精神科医療で身体拘束を受ける人の数は増加を続けています。 厚生労働省の調査によれば、身体拘束を受ける患者は2014年度に1万人を超え、過去最高を更新しています。ここ10年で2倍のペースです[2]。 長時間の身体拘束は、精神的な苦痛を与えるだけでなく、エコノミークラス症候群とも呼ばれる「深部静脈血栓症」を引き起こし、死に至る可能性があります[3,4]。これだけの患者の方々が入院する中で、適切な治療が行われるためにも、今、日本でも精神科医療の身体拘束のあり方を見直すことが必要ではないでしょうか。 そこで精神科医療の身体拘束について詳しい杏林大学保健学部教授の長谷川利夫氏とともに、精神科医療の身体拘束を考える会を立ち上げ、日本の身体拘束を改善するための要望を国などに訴えていくことにしました[5]。 長谷川教授によれば、同じような経験は日本のみなさんにも多く見られると聞きます。 せめて、ケリーに起きたことをもとに、こういったことが繰り返されないようにと願っています。日本に魅了されたケリーは日本から様々な経験や楽しい思いをもらってきたに違いありません。彼に起きた出来事が、今度は日本の精神科医療の改善につながるようにと願っています。 この要望を厚生労働省に届けられるよう、皆様もぜひご賛同をよろしくお願いいたします。 【要請項目】 精神科病院内において、長時間(24時間以上)の身体拘束を禁止すること。 精神科病院内において、身体拘束による人権侵害が起きていないかを早急に調査すること。 精神科医療における身体拘束による人権侵害や死亡が起きることがないように、精神医療の現場において、身体拘束の実施過程を録画などで可視化し、実施後に検証できるように14日間以内に患者本人もしくは遺族に公開すること。 身体拘束の実施人数の縮減し、実施期間の圧縮が図られるよう、目標値を設置し、実現向けて政府としてリーダシップを発揮すること。 患者、遺族への診療情報の提供については、厚生労働省の「診療情報の提供の指針」に基づき、情報の開示がなされるよう、病院に対し、強力に指導すること。 日本の精神科医療を受ける方々が必要以上に身体拘束をされ、命を落としたり、適切な医療を受けられないということがないよう、ぜひ、皆さんの賛同をよろしくお願いいたします。   参考資料:[1]長谷川利夫. (2016). 精神科医療における隔離・ 身体拘束実態調査 ~その急増の背景要因を探り縮減への道筋を考える~. 病院・地域精神医学, 59(1), 18–21.[2] https://yomidr.yomiuri.co.jp/article/20170201-OYTET50013/[3] Dickson BC, Pollanen MS: Fatal thromboembolic disease: A risk in physically restrained psychiatric patients. J Forensic Leg Med 2009; 16:284–286.[4] https://www.e-rapport.jp/team/action/sample/sample07/01.html[5] 【ホームページ 精神科医療の身体拘束を考える会】https://www.norestraint.org English version: https://goo.gl/UBSyzd 【精神科医療の身体拘束を考える会】https://www.norestraint.org

Alliance against physical restraint in psychiatric care (精神科医療の身体拘束を考える会)
13,437 supporters
Update posted 10 months ago

Petition to japanese government, Korean government, Other governments

후쿠시마 핵발전소 사고 10주년, 오염수 해양방출 반대! 핵발전소 이제 그만! 국제서명

[English|French|Germany|Italian|Japanese|Korean | Russian | Spanish | Taiwan Mandarin | Turkish] 후쿠시마 핵발전소 사고 10주년, 오염수 해양방출 반대! 핵발전소 이제 그만! 국제서명 일본 정부는 후쿠시마 방사능 오염수 해양방출을 곧 결정하겠다는 의향을 밝히고 있습니다. 하지만, 후쿠시마현을 비롯하여 일본에서 많은 시민들이 오염수 해양 방출에 크게 반발하고 있습니다. 후쿠시마현 어업조합을 비롯하여 일본 전국의 어업조합, 후쿠시마현 농협과 삼림조합, 그리고 후쿠시마 현내 43개 기초지자체가 해양 방출에 반대 의견서를 제출했습니다. 전국의 45만 명의 시민이 참여한 반대 서명도 있습니다. 해외에서도 오염수 해양방출을 염려하고 반대하는 목소리가 높아지고 있습니다. 오염수는 이미 124만 톤을 넘었습니다. 오염수가 해양으로 방출될 경우 어패류 섭취를 통한 인체 악영향이 염려됩니다. 오염수는 방사능이 충분히 감쇠할 때까지 탱크 보관을 계속하거나 모르타르로 고제화하는 방법을 선택해야 합니다. 한국정부는 탈핵 정책을 표방하지만, 신규 핵발전소 건설을 계속하고 있습니다. 경주 월성핵발전소 삼중수소 누출사건, 영광 한빛핵발전소 격납건물 공극사건 등 심각한 안전 부실도 반복되고 있습니다. 대만에서는 ‘2025년 핵발전 제로’를 내걸고 아시아에서 처음으로 탈원전 사회를 만들기 위해 착실하게 앞으로 나아가고 있습니다. 하지만 8월에는 ‘제4원전 건설 재개 여부를 묻는 국민투표’를 실시할 예정입니다. 터키와 인도에서는 핵발전 건설이 계속되고 있습니다. 필리핀처럼 계속해서 원전 건설 기회를 노리고 있는 나라도 있습니다. 몇 십 만년에 걸쳐 미래 세대에게 남기게 될 핵폐기물의 저장과 처분을 둘러싼 논쟁은 한국, 일본, 대만, 호주 등에서 계속되고 있습니다. 후쿠시마 핵발전소 사고부터 10년, 아시아를 비롯한 각 국가에서 여전히 핵발전을 유지하려는 움직임은 계속되고 있습니다. 하지만, 핵발전은 이미 끝난 낡은 에너지입니다. 세계는 재생가능에너지로 전환하고 있습니다. 우리는 요구합니다. ・일본 정부는 후쿠시마 제1핵발전소 오염수를 해양 방출하지 마라! ・한국 정부는 월성원전 방사능 누출 실태를 밝혀라! ・핵발전소 추가 건설을 모두 백지화하고 재생가능에너지를 확대하라! ・노후핵발전소를 수명연장하지 마라! 위험한 핵발전소를 가동하지 마라! ・주민들의 합의 없는 핵폐기물 저장 · 처분을 하지 마라!   【발기 단체】24개국, 311단체 【Australia】Australian Conservation Foundation、Friends of the Earth Australia、Marrickville Peace Group、People for Nuclear Disarmament、Port Adelaide/Semaphore Amnesty International Australia Action Group、Remembering and Healing、Sydney Peace & Justice Coalition、Uranium Free NSW、Campaign for International Cooperation and Disarmament、Josephite SA (South Australian) Reconciliation Circle 【Austria】Independent Salzburg Platform Against Nuclear、Wiener Plattform Atomkraftfrei 【Belarus】Institute of Radiation Safety(BELRAD) 【Belgium】Fin du nucleaire、Nucleaire Stop Kernenergie 【Brazil】Coalition for Brazil free of Nuclear Plants、International Uranium Film Festival 【Bulgaria】Za Zemiata (FoE Bulgaria) 【China】Blue Dalian 【Czech】Javorice 【Finland】Women Against Nuclear Power、Women for Peace、 【France】Bure en Retz、CCOA-ADN75、ECHO-Echanges、Editions de Fukushima、Fukushima blog、Fukushima informations 福島新たな原子力、Nos Voisins Lointains 3.11、Pectine Nonuke、Reseau Sortir du Nucleaire、Sortir du nucleaire Sarthe、Sortir du Nucleaire Tregor in Brittany、The Fukushima Voices、Vosges Alternatives au Nucleaire、STOP NUCLEAIRE DRÖME ARDECHE、よそものネット・フランス(パリ)Collectif Anti-Nucléaire Ouest、La France Insoumise 44 【Germany】Aktionsbuendnis Energiewende Heilbronn、Arbeitsgemeinschaft AtomErbe Neckarwestheim、Buendnis Fukushima-Neckarwestheim、Buergerinitiative GegenGift Heilbronn/UnterLand、Bund der Buergerinitiativen Mittlerer Neckar、Bundesverband Bürgerinitiativen Umweltschutz、さよなら ニュークス デュセルドルフ、Sayonara Nukes Berlin、Anti Atom Berlin、ICHIMOKU 【India】National Alliance of People's Movements、Indian Social Action Forum、Indigenous Perspectives、Jharkhandi Organisation Against Redaition-JOAR-JADUGODA、Poovulagin Nanbargal、Socialist Party、SUTRA(Society for Social Uplift Through Rural Action) 【Indonesia】MANI(Indonesia Anti-Nuclear Society) 【Italia】Centro di documentazione(Semi sotto la neve)、日伊の架橋-朋・アミーチ 【Japan】会津放射能情報センター、Friends of the Earth Japan、大間原発反対現地集会実行委員会、核燃サイクル阻止1万人訴訟原告団、核燃料廃棄物搬入阻止実行委員会、柏崎刈羽原発反対地元三団体、柏崎巻原発に反対する在京者の会、上関原発止めよう!広島ネットワーク、9とよさかピースの会、熊本・原発止めたい女たちの会、グリーン・アクション、グローバリゼーションを問う広島ネットワーク、経産省前テントひろば、玄海原発プルサーマル裁判の会、原子力教育を考える会、原子力行政を問い直す宗教者の会、原発事故被害者団体連絡会、子ども脱被ばく裁判の会、これ以上海を汚すな!市民会議、Citizens’Nuclear Information Center、原水爆禁止日本国民会議、原発いらない福島の女たち、原発おことわり三重の会、原発さよなら四国ネットワーク、原発とめよう!九電本店前ひろば、再稼働阻止全国ネットワーク、さようなら柏崎刈羽原発プロジェクト、さよなら玄海原発の会・久留米、さよなら島根原発ネットワーク、さよなら原発神戸アクション、さよなら原発なら県ネット、市民放射能監視センター(ちくりん舎)、ストップ秘密保護法かながわ、ソーラーネット、高木基金、脱原発アクションin香川、脱原発とうかい塾、脱原発福島ネットワーク、脱被ばく実現ネット、たまあじさいの会、たんぽぽ舎、とめよう原発!関西ネットワーク、豊橋いのちと未来を守る会、虹とみどりの会、No Nukes Asia Forum Japan、浜岡原発を考える静岡ネットワーク、Peace Boat、東日本大震災避難者の会 Thanks & Dream、ふぇみん婦人民主クラブ、フクシマ・アクション・プロジェクト、ふくしま地球市民発伝所、プルトニウムフリーコミニケーション神奈川、ベクレルフリー北海道、放射能から豊中の市民・子どもを守る会、放射能ゴミ焼却を考えるふくしま連絡会、緑の党グリーンズジャパン、緑のハーモニー、緑ふくしま、みやぎ金曜デモの会、みやぎ脱原発・風の会、モニタリングポストの継続配置を求める市民の会・三春、若狭の原発を考える会 【Korea】후쿠시마 10주년 준비위원회 : 기독교환경운동연대, 노동자연대, 녹색당, 녹색연합, 대전탈핵희망, 불교생태콘텐츠연구소, 불교환경연대, 사회변혁노동자당, 삼척핵발전소반대투쟁위원회, 시민방사능감시센터, 아이쿱생협(강남, 강서, 도봉노원디딤돌, 서대문마포은평, 서울, 송파), 에너지기후정책연구소, 에너지전환포럼, 에너지정의행동, 영광핵발전소안전성확보를위한공동행동, 원불교환경연대, 월성원전인접지역이주대책위원회, 정의당, 정치하는엄마들, 제주탈핵도민행동, 참여연대, 천도교한울연대, 천주교 남자장상협의회 정의평화환경위원회, 천주교 예수회 사회사도직위원회, 천주교 의정부교구 환경농촌사목위원회, 천주교 창조보전연대, 초록을그리다, 탈핵경주시민공동행동, 탈핵부산시민연대, 탈핵신문, 탈핵에너지교수모임, 탈핵에너지전환전북연대, 한국YWCA연합회, 한국천주교여자수도회장상연합회 JPIC분과위원회, 한살림연합, 핵없는사회를위한대구시민행동, 핵없는사회를위한충북행동, 핵없는세상을위한고창군민행동, 핵없는세상광주전남행동, 환경운동연합, 환경재단, 환경정의 【Philippines】ABAKADA-MAPALAD KA、Nuclear Free Bataan Movement、KILUSAN Para sa Pambansang Demokrasya、Coal Free Bataan Movement、Young Bataenos Environmental Advocacy Network、KILUSAN Bataan、Nuclear Free Pilipinas、PEACE WOMEN PARTNERS 【Romania】TERRA Millennium III Foundation 【Russia】Socio-ecological union international 【Sweden】Naturskyddsforeningen i Alvsbyn、Swedish Antinuclear Movement  【Taiwan】台湾環境保護連盟(Taiwan Environmental Protection Union)綠色公民行動聯盟(Green Citizens' Action Alliance)地球公民基金會(Citizen of the earth)媽媽監督核電廠聯盟、守望文教基金會、台灣蠻野心足生態協會、北海岸反核行動聯盟、看守台灣協會、PAPA非核陣線、環境法律人協會、台灣環境資訊協會、彰化縣環境保護聯盟、主婦聯盟環境保護基金會、台灣媽祖魚保育聯盟、台灣千里歩道協會、台灣永社、人本教育基金會、新北市愛鄉協會、林口社區大學、台灣同志諮詢熱線協會、綠色和平、綠黨、台灣公民自主發電行動聯盟、主婦聯盟南部辦公室、台灣人權促進會、台灣綠能臨門一腳協會、台灣環境教育協會、台南新芽、荒野保護協會、美濃愛鄉協進會、屏東縣好好婦女權益發展協會、高雄市公民監督公僕聯盟、高雄市鳳山社區大學、全國教保產業工會、主婦聯盟環境保護基金會南部辦公室、台南社區大學、屏東縣教育產業工會    【Turkey】Nukleersiz. Org、Yesiller Partisi (Green Party)、Istanbul Nukleer Karsiti Platform(NKP) 、Mersin Nukleer Karsiti Platform (Mersin NKP)、Sinop Nukleer Karsiti Platform(SNKP)、Sinop Nukleer Karsiti Platform Dernegi (SNKP DER)、HDP Sinop、SYKP、Sinop Sol Parti、Emek Partisi、Sinop TIP、Elektrik Muhendisleri Odasi(EMO)、Yenifoca Forum、Sinop Cevre Dostlari Dernegi、Sinop Kent Haklari Dernegi (KENT SAV)、Egitim İs Sinop Subesi、Egitim Sen、Sinop Tip、Sinop Tukoder、Gerze Halkevi ve Gerze Bilim Kultur Sanat ve Spor Dernegi、Ataturkcu Dusunce Dernegi Sinop、Cagdas Yasami Destekleme Dernegi Sinop、Yeryuzu Dernegi、Yeni Insan Yayinevi、Samsun Cevre Platformu (SAMCEP)、Mersin Cevre ve Doga Dernegi (MERCED)、Bakirtepe Cevre Platformu、Kazdagi Dogal ve Kulturel Varliklari Koruma Dernegi、Divrigi Kultur Dernegi、Mezopotamya Ekoloji Hareketi,、Amed Ekoloji Dernegi,、Hevsel Koruma Platformu、Burhaniye Cevre Platformu (BURCEP)、Dogader、Artvin Cevre Platformu、Soke Cevre Platformu、Ordu Cevre Dernegi、Antalya Ekoloji Meclisi、Kusadası  Cevre Platformu、Yesil Artvin Dernegi、Mardin Ekoloji Dernegi、Aydin Cevre ve Kultur Dernegi(AYCEP) 、Ekoloji Birligi、Heryer Kazdaglari、Kazdaglari Kardesligi、Mugla Cevre Platformu、Datca Kultur Sanat Dayanismasi、Doganin Cocuklari、Cesme Cevre Platformu、Ayvalik Tabiat Platformu、Agonya Doga Koruma Girisimi、Munzur Cevre Dernegi、Gokova Ekolojik Yasam Dernegi、Cine Yasam Platformu(CIYAP)、Bozcaada Forum、Munzur Koruma Kurulu (DEDEF)、Troya Cevre Dernegi、Karadeniz Isyandadir、Didim Cevre Platformu、Ege Cevre ve Kultur Platformu(EGECEP)、Karaburun Kent Konseyi、Yarimada Yesilleri ve Cesme,Urla,Seferihisar, Karaburun Cevre Platformu、Kazdaglari Istanbul Dayanismasi、Didim Egitim ve Cevre Dernegi、Yenisehir Cevre Platformu、Yalova Platformu、Validebag Gonulluleri Dernegi、Emirdag Yaylalari Doga Platformu、Yasam ve Dayanisma Yolculari、Didim Dernegi、Didim Egitim ve Cevre Dernegi、Ankara Artvin Kultur Yardimlasma Dernegi 【UK】Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament、CND Cymru-the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament in Wales、JAN (Japanese Against Nuclear)、Rochdale and Littleborough Peace Group、South Lakeland and Lancaster District Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament、Suffolk Coastal Friends of the Earth、People Against Wylfa B 【USA】able、Beyond Nuclear、All-African People's Revolutionary Party、Indian Point Safe Energy Coalition、NO Nukes Action,California、Nuclear Information and Resource Service、Nuclear Watch South、Samuel Lawrence Foundation、the Manhattan Project for a Nuclear-Free World、Veterans For Peace - NYC Chapter 34、Coalition Against Nukes、San Luis Obispo Mothers for Peace  

福島原発事故10年国際署名実行委員会
80,547 supporters
Started 12 months ago

Petition to Prime Minister, Ministrer of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, Minister of the Environment, Japan Airlines Co., Ltd., All Nippon Airways Co., Ltd., Hokkaido Railway Company, East Japan Railway Company, Central Japan Railway Company, West Japan Railway Company, Shikoku Railway Company, Kyushu Railway Company

Japan's aviation and rail industries must speed ahead together toward decarbonization!

日本語ページはこちら In the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic and the climate crisis, many countries and global citizens are pushing to redesign the structure of our societies. Both COVID and the climate crisis are similar in that they have upended societies and, in this process, disproportionately affected disadvantaged people. It is within this context and in the face of economic recovery efforts that many have called for global sustainability and human rights, beginning to turn away from the blind pursuit of economic growth. To make these calls a reality, decarbonization -- reducing greenhouse gas emissions to mitigate catastrophic global warming  -- is indispensable. Our homes account for the most amount of greenhouse gas emissions in our daily lives, followed by our means of mobility. Various options exist to mitigate emissions in the home, including improving the energy efficiency of household appliances and switching to  renewable energy. Similarly, in the mobility sector, as the first step toward creating sustainable and inclusive societies, more countries have turned their attention to long-distance transport, which the average person does not use on a daily basis but nevertheless consumes vast amounts of energy.  Globally, the momentum to transform long-distance transport -- to allow air travel and rail transport to complement rather than compete with each other -- is building.   Contrasting the forward-thinking efforts seen abroad, the Japanese Diet formally decided to require that airlines submit “network continuation plans” (plans to show how they intend to maintain their network of flights) to receive any public aid. On top of this, competition within the current long-distance transport system network is increasing, with a push for even more flights (e.g. plans for further construction to create a fifth runway for Haneda Airport, plans to encourage the commercial/civilian use of the Yokota U.S. Air Base’s infrastructure) and for the resource-intensive Linear Chuo Shinkansen (a magnetic-levitation train that would connect Tokyo and Nagoya in less than half the time it takes currently via conventional bullet trains). These plans come at a cost to our health and the environment: many groups and individuals have raised concerns that these initiatives will exacerbate noise and air pollution, increase risks of land degradation and landslides, and adversely impact water resources and ecosystems. It is clear that Japan’s public transport system is becoming increasingly unsustainable. A world where one could easily travel to and receive products from faraway places is certainly convenient. However, in such a world, every person necessarily both directly and indirectly consumes immense amounts of energy and emits vast amounts of greenhouse gases. To create a sustainable, decarbonized world, it is paramount that societies and economies break free of their dependence on high-speed long-distance travel. Public transport is a necessity for our future. The vision for a better mobility system is inextricably linked to our vision for society and our vision for the business model of a business integral to that society. It will inform how we as individuals ought to live and ensure that we lead healthy and safe lives. As the third largest economy in the world, Japan is responsible for immense amounts of greenhouse gas emissions at home and abroad. Yet, at the same time, Japan has also been sharing its transport technologies, including infrastructure, with countries in need of such systems. Considering this history, Japan can and must proactively do its part to create a sustainable world by realizing a decarbonized transport system in which air travel and rail transport exist in harmony. Are airplanes really that environmentally unfriendly?At operation, airplanes emit roughly six times more greenhouse gas emissions compared to Shinkansens. Apart from climate impacts of actually flying, there are other environmental impacts associated with the production of airframes, from the mining of raw materials to the disposal of aircraft. Given that, legally speaking, the useful life of an aircraft is also generally shorter than that of a train, the shorter life cycle of planes may also make them the more resource-intensive mode of transport. It is also important to note that air travel depends on jet fuel and many challenges must be tackled before electricity-powered airplanes can be introduced. This means that, even if energy systems around the world decarbonise, airplanes will continue to be powered by jet fuel, which will necessarily imply emissions when used. Worse yet, emissions from international flights are not currently directly included in the Paris Agreement, which makes such emissions more difficult to track compared to sources such as fossil fuel combustion. This is because emissions are measured at the jurisdictional ‘source’ or place where greenhouse gases are released.  The fact that flight emissions are not measured nationally does not mean that they do not exist. Air travel pollutes and this cannot be ignored. Couldn’t this issue be mitigated by the use of sustainable fuels?As mentioned, there are climate and other environmental impacts associated with the production of the body of the aircraft itself, from the mining of raw materials to the disposal of aircraft. Moreover, given the impacts of climate change such as vegetation changes and food security challenges, the sustainability of alternative fuels such as biofuels must be called into question.  So all is well if we just use rail transport?Rail transport is generally less emission-intensive per capita than air travel and can be viewed as sustainable. However, faster transport requires more energy, which means more greenhouse gas emissions. For example, the emissions of the Linear Chuo Shinkansen, which would halve the time currently necessary to travel between Tokyo and Nagoya by conventional bullet train, are four times those of their conventional counterparts. Regardless, there is much progress to be made in decarbonizing our current mobility system, which includes accelerating the renewable energy transition. Isn’t air travel important for rural economies?Indeed, to a certain extent, rural economies have been propped up by business and leisure travel by those living in Tokyo and other large cities. However, it is necessary to consider whether this is sustainable in the first place. The COVID-19 pandemic has severely affected rural businesses whose clients were businesses in big cities, tourists, and business travelers. Unfortunately, COVID-19 is unlikely to be the last pandemic or crisis that we will face. This means that, without redesigning rural economies for resilience, history will repeat itself. Moreover, many local communities are now rapidly aging and grappling with low birth rates. To survive this loss in local demand, they are becoming increasingly dependent on financial flows from far-away big cities. However, this has contributed to further decline in local businesses catering to local needs and employment. At this rate, simply being the 'final destination' of these long-distance transport systems will not be able to save local economies or halt the local population decline; as such, these localities must work to regain their self-sufficiency to truly survive.  Additionally, transport infrastructure requires advanced technologies, human resources, and funding for maintenance. Even as mechanization and digitalization accelerate, it would be difficult to replace all existing infrastructure, not to mention the maintenance necessary for new infrastructure. Today, there are many poorly maintained roads, bridges, and tunnels, creating disruptions to daily life and causing safety concerns. It is necessary to question whether it is worth allocating resources to maintaining long-distance transportation over local trains and buses, on which local businesses and residents depend. **Initiatives taken by countries to make long-distance transport more sustainable**France: ban on flights that compete with rail and suspension of airport expansion plansThe government’s bailout of Air France-KLM is contingent on banning flights to areas that can be reached by rail in 2.5 hours. The CEO of Air France-KLM has also announced that the company would reduce the number of domestic flights in France by 40% by the end of 2021. After discussions at the citizens’ assembly representing the country’s people, plans to expand Charles-de-Gaulle Airport were suspended.  Germany: ban on flights that compete with rail, support for businesses, and aviation tax hikesThe government banned flights for routes that can be reached by rail within 2.5 hours. The German Aviation Association (BDL) and Deutsche Bahn (DB) agreed on shifting domestic flights to rail transport and are planning to collaborate to improve the convenience of transit and reduce travel time between large cities. Moreover, airfare taxes for domestic flights and EU-region flights will be increased. Austria: commitment to halving greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 (compared to 2018 levels), ban on flights that compete with rail, tax hikes on short-distance flight airfareIn exchange for government guarantees, airlines are expected to halve their greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 (compared to 2018 levels). The government will also ban flights for routes that can be reached by rail within 3 hours and include an airfare tax of 30 euros for flight paths less than 350 km. Switzerland: tax hikes on airfare and acceleration of decarbonization effortsThe government has announced that bank guarantees to aid airlines are conditional on cooperation on future climate measures and increased taxes on airfare. It was also decided that a tax of 30-120 Swiss francs per air ticket (including for private jets) will be added (the actual tax depends on travel distance and boarding class). Revenues from this tax will flow to the country’s climate fund, which will be used for decarbonization. Sweden: 25% reduction of CO2 emissions by 2025, based on pre-COVID concerns from air travelers of the environmental impacts of long-distance transport  Additional capital for Scandinavian Airlines is contingent on the airline’s commitment to a 25% reduction in CO2 emissions by 2025, 5 years ahead of the original target year. In Sweden, 2019 saw a 9% reduction in air travel due primarily to environmental considerations, and the business travel regulations for members of parliament stipulate that modes of travel will be chosen with environmental considerations. Nationally, there is a high level of awareness of the environmental impacts of long-distance transport. The Netherlands: Airline KLM’s advice to take the train instead of flights Airline KLM put out an advertisement with the slogan “Fly Responsibly” to encourage people to use rail where possible and avoid air travel. Airline KLM has also been reducing flights for destinations within a 500-km radius. The United States: President Biden’s plans to establish rail networksAs part of the country’s efforts to push for sustainable public transport, the government is considering building high-speed rail networks. While there are currently 20 round-trip flights in operation between Houston and Dallas per day, Forbes and other media outlets estimate that high-speed rail transport connecting the two cities would be competitive. During his time as Senator from Delaware, President Biden spent 3 hours round-trip commuting to work by rail and has since stressed the importance of decarbonized rail transport on numerous occasions. Singapore: suspension of plans to offer ‘no-destination’ leisure travel due to environmental NGO pressureAlthough Singapore Airlines had initially planned to offer ‘no-destination trips’ during the pandemic, the company was heavily criticized by environmental NGOs that this offering would cause unnecessary greenhouse gas emissions. Abandoning this plan before implementation, Singapore Airlines turned its aircraft into a restaurant (on the ground). **Supporters (as of July 2021)**Momoko Nojo (Founder and Representative of NO YOUTH NO JAPAN)Lilian Ono (Climate activist and model)Fridays For Future HiroshimaFridays For Future FuranoFridays For Future ShigaFridays For Future IwateFridays For Future TokyoFridays For Future Niigata Contact usTransformTransportTogether@gmail.com

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