The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty organization was created in 1945 to monitor and eliminate nuclear explosions by everyone, everywhere: on the Earth's surface, in the atmosphere, underwater and underground. Of the nearly 2,050 nuclear explosions detonated between 1945-1996, over 150 were for peaceful purposes. In the five decades between that fateful day in 1945 and the opening for signature of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) in 1996, over 2,000 nuclear tests were carried out all over the world.
The United States conducted 1,032 tests between 1945 and 1992.
The Soviet Union carried out 715 tests between 1949 and 1990.
The United Kingdom carried out 45 tests between 1952 and 1991.
France carried out 210 tests between 1960 and 1996.
China carried out 45 tests between 1964 and 1996.
Nuclear weapons have been tested in all environments since 1945: in the atmosphere, underground and underwater. Tests have been carried out onboard barges, on top of towers, suspended from balloons, on the Earth’s surface, more than 600 meters underwater and over 200 meters underground. Over the years, nuclear test bombs have also been dropped by aircraft and fired by rockets up to 320 km into the atmosphere.
The fallout of nuclear tests caused diseases and mutation, poisoned the food chain and contaminated the water and its ecosystems; these effects can be long lasting, perhaps for thousand years. Over the course of the Cold War, hundreds of nuclear weapon test facilities and tests left behind a devastating legacy for local citizens and their natural environment. Further information on the destructive effects of nuclear radiation is reported by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation to UN Assembly: http://www.unscear.org/docs/reports/gareport.pdf
Out of a total listed number of 195 States, 182 nations have so far signed the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty and 154 nations have ratified it. For the treaty to enter into force ratification, it is required from the so-called Annex 2 States. Of these China, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK), Egypt, India, Indonesia, Iran, Israel, Pakistan, and the United States have yet to ratify it.
Voluntary moratoriums on nuclear weapon tests are not enough, the UN has urged all Member States that have not yet done so to urgently ratify the United Nations-backed treaty banning them.
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