END SOCIAL INEQUALITIES
END SOCIAL INEQUALITIES
Social inequality occurs when resources in a given society are distributed unevenly, typically through norms of allocation, that engender specific patterns along lines of socially defined categories of persons. It is the differentiation preference of access of social goods in the society brought about by power, religion, kinship, prestige, race, ethnicity, gender, age, sexual orientation, and class. Social inequality usually implies to the lack of equality of outcome, but may alternatively be conceptualized in terms of the lack of equality of access to opportunity
In India, following are distinctive forms of social inequality:
The Global Gender Gap Report, 2018, ranks India at 142 among 149 countries.
Four parameters for measuring gender inequality are economic participation and opportunity, health and survival, educational attainment and political empowerment.
Gender wage gap is highest in India according International Labor Organization women are paid 34% less than men.
Women comprise over 42 per cent of the agricultural labour force in the country, yet they own less than 2 percent of its farm land according to the India Human Development Survey (IHDS).
Caste is significant factor for determining access to resources like education, income, health valued by individuals.
India’s upper caste households earned nearly 47% more than the national average annual household income, the top 10% within these castes owned 60% of the wealth within the group in 2012, as per the World Inequality Database.
Religious identities are significant for an individual’s ability to mobilize resources.
Religious identities can cause prejudices which may lead to economic exclusion and other forms of discrimination which can impact jobs and livelihood opportunities.
While minorities such as Christians, Parsis and Jains have a larger share of income/consumption than their population share, Muslim and Buddhist populations have significantly lower access to economic resources.
Tribal communities in India have been identified as ethnic group on the basis of their unique culture, language, dialect, geographical location, customs etc.
The National Family Health Survey 2015-16 (NFHS-4) showed that 45.9% of ST population were in the lowest wealth bracket as compared to 26.6% of SC population, 18.3% of OBCs, 9.7% of other castes.
5. Economic Inequality
The 2019 report by Oxfam, titled "Public good or Private Wealth?" showed that India’s top 10% holds 77.4% of the total national wealth, while the top 1% holds 51.53% of the wealth.
The bottom 60% population holds only 4.8% of the national wealth.
13.6 crore Indians, who make up the poorest 10% of the country, have continued to remain in debt for the past 15 years.
The Gini coefficient of wealth in India in 2017 is at 0.83, which puts India among the countries with highest inequality countries.
Consequences of Inequalities
Inequalities tend to produce social conflict among the social groups e.g. caste groups like Jaats, Maratha, Patels are demanding reservations but this demand is opposed by caste groups already claiming the benefits of reservations, such clash of interest due to perceived inequality tend to produce violent conflicts between opposing caste groups.
Inequalities among ethnic groups have led to various ethnic movements demanding separate states or autonomous regions or even outright secession from India. North East has been rocked by numerous such ethnic movement e.g. by Nagas for greater Nagalim etc.
Religious inequality tends to generate feeling of exclusion among religious minority groups. This reduces their participation in mainstream, in India religious minorities have large population their economic exclusion compromises the GDP growth of nation as whole.
Poor development indicators like IMR, MMR, low per capita income, lower education and learning outcomes at schools, high rate of population growth can be traced to existing socio-economic inequalities.
High economic inequality is detrimental to public healthcare and education. Upper and Middle classes do not have vested interest in well functioning public healthcare and education as they have means to access private healthcare and education.
Its the 21st century and now its high time to have a country and the world being full of equal opportunities , resources , acceptance , cooperation , tolerance , caring and sharing . We must all make an sincere effort towards it and end all the social inequalities .