Both phrases violate the Establishment Cause of the First Amendment and the Separation of church and state. The motto of "In God we trust" promotes a theistic religion at the expense of a non theistic and secular world view. Contrary to the ruling by The United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, the national motto and slogan on coinage and currency do have correlation to the establishment of religion. To a majority of US citizens, the phrase is not an act of ceremonial deism and is understood to refer to the deity of the Abrahamic religions. The original drafters and pursuers of the legislation have been cited as using religious views and reasons for including the motto and phrase.President Eisenhower listened to a sermon by Rev. Docherty in February of 1954. "He is pledging allegiance to a state, which through its founders, laws and culture, does as a matter of fact believe in the existence of God," Docherty stated. "Without the phrase 'under God,' The Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag might have been recited with similar sincerity by Muscovite children at the beginning of their school day." Due to the "threat" of communism, the Pledge was officially increased by two words to combat the "godless nature" of communists. In a recent interview with Docherty, he stated that the phrase should not be offensive to followers of any religion because it's a one-word-fits-all phrase. "This is a nation built on the principle that there is a God, but it doesn't define it," he said. "It could be the Christian God. It could be the Judeo God. It could be the Buddhan god, it could be the Mohammedan God. But it's built on a vertical relationship with God." Including the words under God does indeed cause the government to establish a sponsorship of a particular religious view. The reasoning behind the adoption of "In God we trust" as a national motto has its roots in heightened religious sentiment that existed during the Civil War. Reverend M.R. Watkinson campaigned with eleven northern Protestant Christian denominations in a letter to the Treasury Department dated 13 November 1861 to add a statement recognizing "Almighty God in some form in our coins." Part of the motivation was to declare that God was on the Union side of the Civil War. The 84th Congress passed a joint resolution to replace the existing motto with "In God we trust" which again was partly motivated by a desire to differentiate between communism, which promotes atheism, and Western capitalistic democracies, which are at least nominally Christian. Having the phrase printed on currency endorses a religious view of a belief in a God which violates the religious freedoms of millions of citizens.