Get Rhyley bigger honkers
Get Rhyley bigger honkers
So, I’m in a relationship with like 25 men and 1 woman. But the problem is, I’m a tall bottom and they are far too short to excite me anymore, and my buff yet slim figure is not of attraction to their short desires. So, I propose that I get breast surgery so I can excite my man + bisexual lady and get easy claps all round. This petition is far more important than Valie’s petition. To prove my point further, here is my entire chemistry assessment I did like 6 months ago:
May 17, 2021
Is there an objective best detection instrument for radiation?
Different radiation detection instruments are used in the field of dosimetry. Dosimetry is the science of determining radiation dose, done in real time or in retrospect. This field of science has been used historically to discover and prevent major disasters and notify early, saving people’s lives, and in the discovery and progression of nuclear medicine with its discovery in use in radiation therapy for internal contamination. Methods of detection in radiation have become numerous, as no single device can detect all kinds of radiation or be used in every situation. However, for each situation there is a device, all having merits and methods in detection and report of radiation, whether it be detection of environmental, external or internal contamination of nuclear radioactivity. So, how are these different instruments used for detection of radiation, and is there one that can be most consistently applicable?
Using a quantative methodological approach in the development of research gathered through document research and article analysis, multiple different radiation detection instruments were analyzed and evaluated with their ways of function, their suited application environmentally, industrially or medically, and if they were the objective best instrument for dosage measurement and detection. With the instruments analyzed, the conclusion was made that there was no objective best instrument, as the uses of the individual instruments are linear and situational, made for a specialized application and therefore cannot be graded with a general rubric. The units of measurement for dosage were also compared and contrasted, supporting research of how instruments detect and graph findings and connecting the instruments with their units of measurement,
1. A quantative methodological approach is taken in comparison of the instruments, finding linking data and detection accuracies with direct numerical value. This approach will best compare and contrast different instruments of detection.
2. Research archived from other websites are used in development of the research paper. These websites made by either government sources, documents made by organizations or scientific papers of professors are analyzed and documented into note taking..
3. Statistical analysis was used to determine an instrument’s method of detection, and its accuracy for situational uses. This statistical analysis consists of comparison of milliRoentgen p/h for a direct situational accuracy.
4. These methods are not limited: if available use a qualitative approach of asking direct statistics and theory behind instruments with an expert.
The majority of all information gathered about how the instruments are used is from this website. This website provided the majority of information concerning the type of radiation measured and detected, it’s use industrially and if available, commercially, and in which situation these devices are most applicable in dosimetry. Wikipedia is a community encyclopedia, which can be edited and accessed by anyone provided moderation permission. Despite the moderation, however, Wikipedia has been proven to have potentially inaccurate articles, suspected up to 20% of Wikipedia articles to be inaccurate. Sources gathered from Wikipedia are generally secondary, gathered from first hand, therefore has proper susceptibility for inaccuracy. Nontheless, this literature contributed to the majority of information gathered, as it is both most accessible and had largest variety in information. However, when using Wikipedia it is detrimental to have multiple sources to back the information used.
Information gathered surrounding the health precautions of radiation and what dosimetry detects environmentally and internally was gathered from this website. This website is a subsection in the U.S Department of Human Health and Services, a U.S government agency, meaning the information would be completely reliable. Government websites would have had to be reviewed extensively to be published to a public site. Desspite a weak amount of complex information, it gave a firm basis for further research on situational instruments and its use on workers. There is little doubt that the REMM site has misinformation, with key referencing to published documents and shared information to the WHO and manu other trusted sources. It should be considered thst the website specializes most prominently in nuclear health then the theory behind nuclear detection, so information may not be core focus and therefore has susceptibility for misinformation.
Information gathered surrounding the nuclear science and technicalities behind dosimetry and certain instruments, as well as research for DCF were gathered from this website. The IAEA, or International Atomic Energy Agency, is an organization surrounding nuclear energy and the theory behind nuclei, therefore having multiple articles about instruments for nuclear use including for detection. Being a governmennt supported international organization, the sources gathered are highly reliable due to moniterization and official checks of information. The website had key linking to both their own official documents, and nuclear information resources, being highly reliable. Similar to REMM dosimetry is a subsection of the website is not its main focus of information, but the information provided surrounding dosimetry can be trusted.
‘In dosimetry, there are three major types of radiation detectors that are most commonly used, dependent on the requirements of the device. These are: Gas-Filled Detectors, Scintillators, and Solid State Detectors’.
Geiger-Muller Counters are ‘Gas-Filled Detectors’ that are used for the detection of ionizing radiation. They works through an electrolysis system of electrodes parallel from each other, creating an electric field provided a potential voltage. Put simply, the machine’s ‘gas’ is ionized by radiation, with such ions counted on a line (Fg.1) with an audible pulse , determining the severity of radiation on an Rem measurement. The frequency of this count determines the intensity of total radiation. Geiger-Muller Counters have a range from 1 to 100 mR/hr, however industrial Geiger-Muller counters can go as high as 500mR/hr (milliRoentgens/h). This makes it the preferable instrument for environmental detection of radiation, with its high range of detection and its ability for detection of all radiation. Industrially, it is less preferable due to a lower accuracy to other instruments such as ionization chambers, therefore being non-preferable on workers. Geiger-Müller counters also have a “downtime”(Fg.2), having a period of time after a pulse where it cannot detect radiation, creating further unreliability for consistent accuracy.
Cloud Chambers are ‘Gas-Filled Detectors’ that are used for visualizing the passage of ionizing radiation. A cloud chamber consists of a sealed environment containing a supersaturated vapor of water of alchohol, which an energetic charged particle will interact and “knock” the gas molecules out of the way via electrostatic forces in the particle’s movement through the vapor, resulting in a trail of ionized gas particles that serve as condensation centers for the particle “cloud” track. These cloud tracks for distinct shape that serve as both classification, and proof of particle. This instrument serves as invention made for research purposes, being the machinery that both definetively proved the physical existence of cosmic rays and the positron. However, the cloud chamber and its technology does not serve use for dosage measurements due to the inability for the particles to be counted and a radiation dosage to be determined. The instrument more so serves as a means to determine the kind of ionizing radiation the material being detected is emmiting, with the distinctive trails classifying the type of radiation.
Scintillation Counters are ‘scintillators’ that are used for the detection of ionizing radiation. Scintillators are materials that are able to convert high energy radiation (most prominently gamma) to a near visible or visible light. The intensity of luminescence inflicted by photons from an incoming particle (or gamma rays directly), will result with the excitation effect of incident radiation on the scintillating material, creating resultant light pulses that therefore determines the intensity of radiation on a pulse graph similar to those used by Geiger-Muller Counters. Scintillation counters use dps units due to photon releases being measured. Scintillation counters are highly moldable and adjustiable for detection, therefore being greatly preferred in both industry and environmental detection, being optimal for detection of material radiation and for large detection spaces for alpha and beta contamination. The technology is also optimal for nuclear security/nuclear plant safety and detection of radioactive contamination of material (Fg.3). However, they are not non-optimal for personal detection. Scintillation Counters cannot detect precise measurements on workers with similar accuracy to personal dosimeters due to the pulse system only detecting significant anomalies in infrequent periods.
Dosimeters are a general term for all personal radiation detectors, using multiple different technologies to detect ionizing radiation. Modern electronic personal dosimeters (Fg.4) serve as an on-body detector that can give a continuous readout of cumulative dose and current dose rate, accompanied with an automatic alert when a specific dose is exceeded. Personal dosimeters use multiple different instrument concepts with different models, for example, Geiger tube dosimeters use the principles of Geiger Muller Counters, with electrodes providing an electric field for ionizing radiation to be detected. From here, a constant pulse of radiation can be detected using the Sv unit of measurement, provided.enough electricity to keep the instrument running. Another example would be a thermoluminescent dosimeter, using the technologies of scintillators with an imbedded quantity of Sodium Iodide coated with thallium for gamma detection. Dosimeters are very useful for worker detection, as they are portable and can be held for extended periods of time to give a constant dosage of contamination, and alerting when a worker may be in danger. Evidently, however, due to being for strictly personal use they are non-preferrable for environmental detection and material dosage measurements.
Radiation badges are a type of dosimeter that serves for dosage measurements for gamma and high-energy beta radiation. Radiation Badges are electronic personal dosimeters that are worn (Fg.7) by workers working in radioactive environments, measuring radiation that the worker is exposed to. Radiation workers who operate x-ray machines at hospitals, fluoroscopy units, certain unsealed and sealed radioisotopes or are in a workplace with exposed sources of gamma or high energy beta radiation. Radiation Badges are commercial, being used in a multitude of workspaces separate of strictly scientific work environments or radioactive areas, applicable in hospitals for x-ray workers and PET scans, being used by patients for their treatment and for safety purposes to ensure no overdoses of radiation.
Units of Measurement for Radiation
Throughout these findings, terms used to list what unit of measurement the detector uses have consisted of different quantities of radiation absorbed in the roentgen unit (Rem, Sv, Rad, Gy). Then using the Dose Conversion Factor (DCF), these radioactivity readings determine the dose in either the standard international (Bq) or traditional unit (Ci) of radioactivity. These measurements are all used for detection of workers that may have tissue radiation (dps exception)
Rem (roentgen equivalent man)
A unit of equivilent absorbed dose that accounts for biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation, therefore determining radiation dose of tissue. Dosage of Rem is equal to the dosage of Rad multiplied by the quality factor (Q), which Q = 1 unless the radiation detected is alpha, then it is 20.
Rem = Rad x Q
Unit of equivilent absorbed dose, equal to 100 Rem.
1 Sv = 100 Rem
Sv = Gy x Q
Rad (radiation absorbed dose)
The smallest roentgen unit of absorbed dosage of radiation. A measure of the amount of energy deposited in tissue.
1 Rad = 100 erg/gram
Unit of radiation energy deposition in tissue, equal to 100 Rad.
1 Gy = 100 Rad
The traditional unit of radioactivity, equal to the radioactivity of one gram of Radium-226
1 Ci = 37 billion dps = 37 billion Bq
The standard international unit. Equal to one dps.
1 Bq = 27 pCi
Disintegrations per second (dps)
The quantity of subatomic particles or gamma radiation released from one given atoms over a second. The base unit of detection.
1 dps = 1 Bq
In conclusion, there is no real objective best detection instrument for radiation. This is due to instruments used for detection of radiation being specially conceptualized and manufactured for situations that the instruments are most useful for. Some instruments can be used in industry, for the measurement of dosage of radiation on materials and in the workplace, with personal dosimeters and radiation badges being most optimal for personal detection. Other instruments for radiations are most preferrable environmentally, for large scale detection of environments and specializing with preferrance for alpha, beta or gamma detection. Even further are those instruments used for research, dosimetry being used in the discovery of particles, research into the development of nuclear science or for medical use for patients in need. There is no objective best, because dosimeters are specially made for where their technology is most optimal for their application.