Stop political vilification and harassment of human rights and indigenous peoples’ rights defenders in Ifugao, Cordillera, Philippines

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Anita Kanitz
6 years ago
Be the change you want to see!

Every country of this planet has it's genocide and war crimes, that's a shame for mankind:

For example:


Greenwood Massacre

In 1921 in the neighborhood of greenwood, Tulsa Oklahoma, a race riot broke out, what was once a vibarent community with an all black community of 10,000, boasting over 600 successful buissness.
Massacre

During the time of the great depression, where some economic problems were affecting the white communaties, and not affecting the black communaties at all, at this time period practice of lynching blacks for sport for bored white people was common
Result

for 16 hours straight the white mob attacked and when they were done, and their blood lust was filled, nobody was hauled away, taken to jail, or arrested they disbanded, 300 black men women and children were dead, said to have been buried in mass graves, 800 injured, and 10,000 were left homeless, 35 cityblocks, 1,256 residence were destroyed by fire causing $1.8 million dollars worth of property damage, the communaty of greenwood was completely destroyed.



GENOCIDE OF NATIVE AMERICANS: A SOCIOLOGICAL VIEW

The American Indian Holocaust, known as the “500 year war” and the “World’s Longest Holocaust In The History Of Mankind And Loss Of Human Lives.”Death Toll: 95,000,000 to 114,000,000

American Holocaust: D. Stannard (Oxford Press, 1992) – “over 100 million killed” “[Christopher] Columbus personally murdered half a million Natives”

The term Genocide derives from the Latin (genos=race, tribe; cide=killing) and means literally the killing or murder of an entire tribe or people. The Oxford English Dictionary defines genocide as “the deliberate and systematic extermination of an ethnic or national group” and cites the first usage of the term as R. Lemkin, Axis Rule in Occupied Europe, (1944) p.79. “By ‘genocide’ we mean the destruction of a nation or an ethnic group.”

The U.N. General Assembly adopted this term and defended it in 1946 as “….a denial of the right of existence of entire human groups.” Most people tend to associate genocide with wholesale slaughter of a specific people. However, “the 1994 U.N. Convention on the Punishment and Prevention of the Crime of Genocide, describes genocide beyond outright murder of people as the destruction and extermination of culture.” Article II of the convention lists five categories of activity as genocidal when directed against a specific “national, ethnic, racial, or religious group.”

These categories are:

Killing members of the group;
Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of group;
Deliberately infliction on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part;
Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group;
Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.

Genocide or the deliberate extermination of one ethnic group by another is not new, for example in 1937 the Pequot Indians were exterminated by the Colonists when they burned their villages in Mystic, Connecticut, and then shot all the other people — including women and children — who tried to escape. The United States Government has refused to ratify the U.N. convention on genocide. There are many facets of genocide which have been implemented upon indigenous peoples of North America. The list of American genocidal policies includes: Mass-execution, Biological warfare, Forced Removal from homelands, Incarceration, Indoctrination of non-indigenous values, forced surgical sterilization of native women, Prevention of religious practices, just to name a few.

By mass-execution prior to the arrival of Columbus the land defined as the 48 contiguous states of America numbered in excess of 12 million. Four centuries later, it had been reduced by 95% (237 thousand). How? When Columbus returned in 1493 he brought a force of 17 ships. He began to implement slavery and mass-extermination of the Taino population of the Caribbean. Within three years five million were dead. Fifty years later the Spanish census recorded only 200 living! Las Casas, the primary historian of the Columbian era, writes of numerous accounts of the horrendous acts that the Spanish colonists inflicted upon the indigenous people, which included hanging them en masse, roasting them on spits, hacking their children into pieces to be used as dog food, and the list continues.

This did not end with Columbus’ departure, the European colonies and the newly declared United States continued similar conquests. Massacres occurred across the land such as the Wounded Knee Massacre. Not only was the method of massacre used, other methods for “Indian Removal” and “clearing” included military slaughter of tribal villages, bounties on native scalps, and biological warfare. British agents intentionally gave Tribes blankets that were intentionally contaminated with smallpox. Over 100 thousand died among the Mingo, Delaware, Shawnee and other Ohio River nations. The U.S. army followed suit and used the same method on the Plains tribal populations with similar success.

List of Massacres

1539 Napituca Massacre. After defeating resisting Timucuan warriors, Hernando de Soto had 200 executed, in the first large-scale massacre by Europeans on what became American soil.
1540 Mabila Massacre. The Choctaw retaliated against Hernando de Soto's expedition, killing 200 soldiers, as well as many of their horses and pigs, for their having burned down Mabila compound and killed c. 2,500 warriors who had hidden in houses of a fake village.
1541–42 Tiguex Massacres. After the invading Spaniards seized the houses, food and clothing of the Tiguex, and raped their women, the Tiguex resisted. The Spanish attacked them, burning at the stake 50 people who had surrendered. Francisco Vásquez de Coronado's men laid siege to the Moho Pueblo, and after a months-long siege, they killed 200 fleeing warriors.
1599 Acoma Massacre. In retaliation for the killing of 11 Spanish soldiers, Juan de Oñate led a punitive expedition against the natives in a three-day battle at the Acoma Pueblo, killing approximately 800. King Philip III later punished Oñate for his excesses.
1601 Sandia Mountains. Spanish troops destroyed 3 Indian villages in the Sandia Mountains, New Mexico. According to Spanish sources, 900 Tompiro Indians were killed.
1622 Jamestown Massacre. Powhatan (Pamunkey) killed 347 English men, women and children throughout the Virginia colony, almost one-third of the English population of the Jamestown colony, in an effort to push the English out of Virginia.
1623 Pamunkey Peace Talks. The English poisoned the wine at a "peace conference" with Powhatan leaders, killing about 200; they physically attacked and killed another 50.
1637 Mystic Massacre. In the Pequot War, English colonists commanded by John Mason, with Mohegan and Narragansett allies, launched a night attack on a large Pequot village on the Mystic River in present-day Connecticut, where they burned the inhabitants in their homes and killed all survivors, for total fatalities of about 600–700.
1643 Pavonia Massacre. In 1643 the Mohawk attacked a band of Wappinger and Tappan, who fled to New Amsterdam seeking the protection of New Netherland governor, William Kieft. Kieft dispersed them to Pavonia and Corlears Hook. They were later attacked, 129 being killed. This prompted the beginning of Kieft's War, driven by mercenary John Underhill.
1643 Hutchinson Massacre. As part of Kieft's War in New Netherland, near the Split Rock (now northeastern Bronx in New York City), local Lenape (or Siwanoy) killed Anne Hutchinson, six of her children, a son-in-law, and as many as seven others (servants). Susanna, one of Hutchinson's daughters, was taken captive and lived with the natives for several years.
1644 Pound Ridge Massacre. As part of Kieft's War in New Netherland, at present day Pound Ridge, New York, John Underhill, hired by the Dutch, attacked and burned a sleeping village of Lenape, killing about 500 Indians.
1655 Peach Tree War. In retaliation for Director-General of New Netherland Peter Stuyvesant's attacks to their trading partners and allies at New Sweden, united bands of natives attacked Pavonia, Staten Island, Colen Donck and other areas of New Netherland.
1675 Bloody Brook Massacre. During King Philip's War, Indian warriors killed 60 soldiers of Deerfield, Massachusetts.
1675 Great Swamp Massacre. Colonial militia attacked a Narragansett fort near South Kingstown, Rhode Island. At least 40 warriors were killed and 300 women, children and elder men burnt in the village.
1676 Nine Men's Misery. During King Philip's War, warriors subjected nine captive soldiers to ritual torture and death.
1676 Turner Falls Massacre. Captain William Turner and 150 militia volunteers attacked a fishing Indian camp at present-day Turners Falls, Massachusetts. At least 100 women and children were killed in the attack.
1676 Rhode Island Militia. volunteers under Major Talcott attacked a band of Narragansetts on Rhode Island, killing 34 men and 92 women and children.
1680 Pueblo Revolt. Pueblo warriors killed 380 Spanish settlers, and drove other Spaniards from New Mexico.
1689 Lachine massacre. 1,500 Mohawk warriors attacked the small settlement of Lachine, New France and killed more than 90 of the village's 375 French residents, following widespread French attacks on Mohawk villages in present-day New York.
1689 Zia Pueblo. Governor Jironza de Cruzate destroyed the pueblo of Zia, New Mexico. 600 Indians were killed and 70 survivors enslaved.
1689 Cocheco Massacre. Twenty-three colonists at Dover, New Hampshire were killed and 29 captured by Abenaki Indians. The captives were the first recorded English sold by Indians to the French in Canada.
1690 Schenectady Massacre. As part of the Beaver Wars, French and Algonquins destroyed Schenectady, New York, killing 60 Dutch and English settlers, including ten women and at least twelve children.
1692 Candlemas Massacre. During King William's War, 200-300 Abenaki and Canadiens killed 75, took 100 prisoner and burned the town of York, Maine district of the Province of Massachusetts Bay
1694 Oyster River Massacre. About 250 Abenaki Indians under the command of Claude-Sébastien de Villieu from Quebec killed 104 settles at Oyster River (now Durham), New Hampshire, and took many others captive.
1704 Apalachee Massacre. Former Carolina Governor James Moore launched a series of brutal attacks on the Apalachee villages of Northern Florida. They killed 1000 Apalachees and enslaved at least 2000 survivors.
1704 Deerfield Massacre. During Queen Anne's War, a force composed of Abenaki, Kanienkehaka, Wyandot and Pocumtuck, led by a small contingent of French-Canadian militia, sacked the town of Deerfield, Massachusetts, killing 56 civilians and taking more than 100 as captives.
1712 Fox Indian Massacre. French troops and Indian allies slaughtered around 1,000 Fox Indians men, women and children in a five-day massacre near the head of the Detroit River.
1713 Fort Neoheroka. Militia volunteers and Indian allies under Colonel James Moore attacked Ft. Neoheroka, the main stronghold of the Tuscarora Indians. 200 Tuscaroras were burned to death in the village and 900–1000 others were subsequently killed or captured.
1715 Pocotaligo Massacre. Yamassee Indians killed 4 British traders and representatives of Carolina at Pocotaligo, near present-day Yemassee, South Carolina. 90 other traders were killed in the following weeks.
1724 Norridgewock Massacre. Captains Jeremiah Moulton and Johnson Harmon led 200 rangers to the Abenaki village of Norridgewock, Maine to kill Father Sebastian Rale and destroy the Indian settlement. The rangers massacred 80 Abenakis (including two dozen women and children).
1729 Natchez Massacre. Natchez Indians attacked French settlements near present-day Natchez, Mississippi, killing more than 200 French colonists.
1730 Massacre at Fox Fort. A French army of 1,400 soldiers and its Indian allies massacred about 500 Fox Indians (including 300 women and children) as they tried to flee their besieged camp.
1747 Chama River. Spanish troops ambushed a group of Utes on the Chama River, killing 111 Indians and taking 206 as captives.
1755 Draper's Meadow Massacre. 5 settlers killed by Shawnee Indians at Draper's Meadow, Virginia
1757 Battle of Fort William Henry. Following the fall of Fort William Henry during the Seven Years' War, Indians allied with the French killed between 70 and 180 British and colonial prisoners.
1758 San Saba Mission Massacre. A large party of Comanche, Tonkawa and Hasinai Indians attacked the mission of San Saba, Texas, killing 8 people and burning down the mission.
1759 St. Francis Raid. During the Seven Years' War, in retaliation for the rumored murder of a captured Stockbridge man and detention of Captain Quinten Kennedy of the Rogers' Rangers, Major Robert Rogers led a party of approximately 150 English regulars, volunteers and Mahican into the village of Odanak, Quebec. They killed up to 30 Abenaki people, among them women and children, as confirmed via conflicting reports.
1763 Devil's Hole Massacre. During the Seven Years' War, Seneca allied with the French attacked a British supply train and soldiers just south of Fort Niagara. They killed 21 teamsters from the supply train and 81 soldiers who attempted to rescue the train.
1763 Killings by the Paxton Boys. In response to Pontiac's Rebellion, frontier Pennsylvania settlers killed 20 peaceful Susquehannock.
1763 Muddy Creek Massacre. About 60 Shawnees under the leadership of Cornstalk attacked the settlements of Muddy Creek and Clendenin, capturing or killing all inhabitants.
1764 Enoch Brown school massacre. Four Delaware killed a schoolmaster, 10 pupils and a pregnant woman. Two pupils were scalped but survived.
1774 Spanish Peaks. Spanish troops surprised a large fortified Comanche village near Spanish Peaks (Raton, New Mexico). They killed nearly 300 Indians (men, women and children) and took 100 captives.
1774 Yellow Creek Massacre. Daniel Greathouse killed members of Chief Logan's family.
1777 The Grave Creek Massacre. A militia company under Captain William Foreman is ambushed and killed by Indians south of Wheeling, West Virginia.
1778 Battle of Wyoming. During the American Revolutionary War, following a battle with rebel defenders of Forty Fort, Iroquois allies of Loyalist forces hunted and killed those who fled; they were later accused of using ritual torture to kill those soldiers who surrendered. These claims were denied by Iroquois and British leaders at the time.
1778 Stockbridge Massacre. An ambush by the British during the American Revolutionary War that left nearly 40 natives dead.
1778 Cherry Valley Massacre. British and Seneca forces attacked the fort and village at Cherry Valley, New York, killing 16 rebel troops and more than 30 settlers.
1780 Westervelt Massacre. Seventeen Dutch settlers killed and two taken captive out of a caravan of 41. The settler caravan was traveling between Low Dutch Station, Kentucky and Harrod's Town, Kentucky. The victims were all scalped and sold to the British for a bounty.
1781 Dietz Massacre. During the Revolution, Iroquois allied with the British attacked the home of Johannes Dietz, Berne, New York, killing and scalping Dietz, his wife, their daughter-in-law, four children of their son's family, and a servant girl.
1781 Long Run Massacre. Thirty-two settlers killed by 50 Miami people while trying to move to safety, additionally approximately 15 settlers and 17 soldiers were killed attempting to bury the initial victims.
1782 Gnadenhütten massacre. During the Revolution, Pennsylvania militiamen massacred nearly 100 non-combatant Christian Lenape, mostly women and children; they killed and scalped all but two young boys.
1782 Corbly Family Massacre. During the Revolution, Indians allied with the British attacked the family of John Corbly, a Christian minister in Greene County, Pennsylvania. His wife and three of their children were killed; and two daughters were scalped, but survived. The Reverend Corbly escaped.
1791 Big Bottom Massacre. 14 Settlers killed by Indian War Party in Stockport, Morgan County, Ohio
1791 Fort Recovery Massacre. At present day Fort Recovery, Ohio, an army of 1,500 Americans led by Arthur St. Clair, was ambushed by an army of Miami Indians led by chief Little Turtle. Before retreating, 700 of the 1,500 American soldiers were slaughtered.
1805 Canyon del Muerto. Spanish soldiers led by Antonio Narbona massacred 115 Navajo Indians (mostly women, children and old men) in Canyon del Muerto, northeastern Arizona.
1812 Fort Dearborn Massacre. During the War of 1812, Indians allied with the British killed American soldiers and settlers evacuating Fort Dearborn (site of present-day Chicago, Illinois). In all, 26 soldiers, two officers, two women and 12 children, and 12 trappers and settlers hired as scouts, were killed.
1812 Pigeon Roost Massacre. During the War of 1812, twenty four settlers, including fifteen children, were massacred by a war party of Native Americans (mostly Shawnee, but possibly including some Delawares and Potawatomis) in a surprise attack on a small village located in what is today Scott County, Indiana.
1812 Zimmer Massacre. During the War of 1812, four settlers were killed in an attack believed to be by aggrieved Lenape, in Ashland County, Ohio.
1812 Copus Massacre. During the War of 1812, Northwest Indians attacked the Ashland County, Ohio homestead of Rev. James Copus, killing three militiamen and one settler; and wounding two militiamen and a settler's daughter; settlers killed two Indians.
1813 River Raisin Massacre. During the War of 1812, Indians allied with the British killed between 30 and 60 Kentucky militia after their surrender.
1813 Dilbone Massacre. During the War of 1812, an Indian allegedly killed three settlers (David Garrard and Henry Dilbone and wife) in Miami County, Ohio. Settlers later killed the Indian they suspected of the murders.
1813 Fort Mims Massacre. After Creek were attacked by US forces in the Battle of Burnt Corn (which the Creek won), a band of Red Sticks sacked Fort Mims, Alabama, killing 400 civilians and taking 250 scalps. This action brought the US into the internal Creek War, at the same time as the War of 1812.
1813 Hillabee Massacre. Tennessee troops under General White launched a dawn attacked on an unsuspecting Creek town (the village leaders were engaged in peace negotiations with General Andrew Jackson). About 65 Creek Indians were shot or bayoneted.
1813 Autossee Massacre. Georgia Militia General Floyd attacked a Creek town on Tallapoosa River, in Macon County, Alabama, killing 200 Indians before setting the village afire.
1818 Chehaw Affair. During the First Seminole War, U.S. troops attacked a non-hostile Muscogee village, killing an estimated 10 to 50 men, women and children.
1824 Fall Creek Massacre. Six settlers in Madison County, Indiana killed and robbed eight Seneca. One suspect escaped trial and another was a witness at subsequent trial. Of those charged with murder, one man was hanged 12 January 1825, and two were hanged 2 June 1825. The last defendant was pardoned at the last minute.
1826 Dressing Point Massacre. A posse of Anglo-Texan settlers massacred a large community of Karankawa Indians near the mouth of the Colorado River in Matagorda County, Texas. Between 40 and 50 Karankawas were killed.
1832 Indian Creek Massacre. A party of Potawatomi, with a few Sauk allies, killed fifteen men, women and children and kidnapped two young women, who were later ransomed.
1832 St. Vrain massacre. 4 killed by Ho-Chunk while delivering dispatches during Black Hawk War near present day Pearl City, Illinois during Black Hawk War
1832 Spafford Farm massacre. Five men were attacked by a Kickapoo war party, four whites and one Indian died, during Black Hawk War, near present day South Wayne, Wisconsin
1832 Battle of Bad Axe. Soldiers under General Henry Atkinson and armed volunteers killed around 150 Indian men, women and children near present-day Victory, Wisconsin.
1833 Cutthroat Gap Massacre. Osage tribe attacked a Kiowa camp west of the Wichita Mountains in southwest Oklahoma where one hundred and fifty Kiowa tribal inhabitants were brutally slaughtered in the Osage attack.
1835 Dade Massacre. During the Second Seminole War, Seminole killed almost all of a command of 110 American soldiers in Central Florida. All but two of the soldiers were killed; and one survivor died a few months later from his wounds.
1836 Fort Parker Massacre. Comanche killed seven European Americans in Limestone County, Texas. The five captured included Cynthia Ann Parker.
1837 Johnson Massacre. At least 20 Apaches were killed near Santa Rita del Cobre, New Mexico while trading with a group of American settlers led by John Johnson. The Anglos blasted the Apaches with a canon loaded with musket balls, nails and pieces of glass and finished off the wounded.
1838 Killough Massacre. Indians massacred 18 members and relatives of the Killough family in Texas.
1838 or 1839 Webster Massacre . Comanche killed a party of settlers attempting to ford the Bushy Creek near present day Leander, Texas. All of the Anglo men were killed and Mrs. Webster and her two children were captured.
1840 Council House Massacre .The 12 leaders of a Comanche delegation (65 people including 35 women and children) were shot in San Antonio, Texas, while trying to escape the local jail. 23 others including 5 women and children were killed in or around the city.
1840 Indian Key Massacre. During the Seminole Wars, Spanish-speaking Indians attacked and destroyed an Indian Key settlement, killing 13 inhabitants, including noted horticulturist Dr. Henry Perrine.
1840 Colorado River. Volunteer Rangers under Colonel Moore massacred 140 Comanches (men, women and children) in their village on the Colorado and captured 35 others (mostly small children).
1840 Clear Lake Massacre. A posse led by Mexican Salvador Vallejo massacred 150 Pomo and Wappo Indians on Clear Lake, California.
1846 Sacramento River. Captain Frémont's men attacked a peaceful band of Indians (probably Yanas) on the Sacramento River in California, killing between 120 and 200 Indians.
1846 Pauma Massacre. 11 Californios killed by Indians at Escondido, California led to the Temecula massacre.
1846 Temecula Massacre. 33 to 40 Indians killed in revenge for the Pauma Massacre at Escondido, California.
1847 Storming of Pueblo de Taos. In response to a New Mexican-instigated uprising in Taos, American troops attacked the heavily fortified Pueblo of Taos with artillery, killing nearly 150, some being Indians. Between 25 and 30 prisoners were shot by firing squads.
1847 Whitman massacre. Cayuse and Umatilla killed the missionaries Dr. Marcus Whitman, Mrs. Narcissa Whitman and twelve others at Walla Walla, Washington, triggering the Cayuse War.
1848 Brazos River. A hunting party of 26 friendly Wichita and Caddo Indians was massacred by Texas Rangers under Captain Samuel Highsmithe, in a valley south of Brazos River. 25 men and boys were killed, only one child managed to escape.
1850 Bloody Island Massacre. Nathaniel Lyon and his U. S. Army detachment of cavalry killed 60–100 Pomo people on Bo-no-po-ti island near Clear Lake, (Lake Co., California); they believed the Pomo had killed two Clear Lake settlers who had been abusing and murdering Pomo people. (The Island Pomo had no connections to the enslaved Pomo). This incident led to a general outbreak of settler attacks against and mass killing of native people all over Northern California. Site is California Registered Historical Landmark #427
1851 Old Shasta. Town Miners killed 300 Wintu Indians near Old Shasta, California and burned down their tribal council meeting house.
1852 Hynes Bay Massacre. Texas militiamen attacked a village of 50 Karankawas, killing 45 of them.
1852 Bridge Gulch Massacre. 70 American men led by Trinity County sheriff William H. Dixon killed more than 150 Wintu people in the Hayfork Valley of California, in retaliation for the killing of Col. John Anderson.
1852 Wright Massacre. White settlers led by a notorious Indian hunter named Ben Wright massacred 41 Modocs during a "peace parley".
1853 Howonquet Massacre. Californian settlers attacked and burned the Tolowa village of Howonquet, massacring 70 people.
1853 Yontoket Massacre. A posse of settlers attacked and burned a Tolowarancheria at Yontocket, California, killing 450 Tolowa during a prayer ceremony.
1853 Achulet Massacre. White settlers launched an attack on a Tolowa village near Lake Earl in California, killing between 65 and 150 Indians at dawn.
1853 "Ox" incident. U.S. forces attacked and killed an unreported number of Indians in the Four Creeks area (Tulare County, California) in what was referred to by officers as "our little difficulty" and "the chastisement they have received".
1854 Nasomah Massacre. 40 white settlers attacked the sleeping village of the Nasomah Indians at the mouth of the Coquille River in Oregon, killing 15 men and 1 woman.
1854 Chetco River Massacre. Nine white settlers attacked a friendly Indian village on the Chetco River in Oregon, massacring 26 men and a few women. Most of the Indians were shot while trying to escape. Two Chetco who tried to resist with bows and arrows were burned alive in their houses. Shortly before the attack, the Chetco had been induced to give away their weapons as "friendly relations were firmly established".
1854 Grattan Massacre. After a detachment of 30 U.S. soldiers in the Nebraska Territory opened fire on an encampment of 4,000 Brulé Sioux, killing Chief Conquering Bear, warriors attacked and killed all the soldiers and their civilian interpreter.
1854 Ward Massacre. Shoshone killed 18 of the 20 members of the Alexander Ward party, attacking them on the Oregon Trail in western Idaho. This event led the U.S. eventually to abandon Fort Boise and Fort Hall, in favor of the use of military escorts for emigrant wagon trains.
1855 Klamath River Massacres. In retaliation for the murder of six settlers and the theft of some cattle, whites commenced a "war of extermination against the Indians" in Humboldt County, California.
1855 Harney Massacre. US troops under Brigadier General William S. Harney killed 86 Sioux, men, women and children at Blue Water Creek, in present-day Nebraska. About 70 women and children were taken prisoner.
1855 Lupton Massacre. A group of settlers and miners launched a night attack on an Indian village near Upper Table Rock, Oregon, killing 23 Indians (mostly elderly men, women and children).
1855 Little Butte Creek. Oregon volunteers launched a dawn attack on a Tututniand Takelma camp on the Rogue River. Between 19 and 26 Indians were slaughtered.
1856 Grande Ronde River Valley Massacre. Washington Territorial Volunteers under Colonel Benjamin Shaw attacked a peaceful Cayuse and Walla Walla Indians on the Grande Ronde River in Oregon. 60 Indians, mostly women, old men and children were killed.
1856 Shingletown. In reprisal for Indian stock theft, white settlers massacred at least 20 Yana men, women and children near Shingletown, California.
1857 Spirit Lake Massacre. Thirty-five to 40 killed and 4 taken captive by Santee Sioux in the last Native American attack on settlers in Iowa.
1857 Mountain Meadows Massacre. Roughly 120 emigrants were killed by members of the Utah Territorial Militia, together with some Paiute Native Americans.
1858-1859 Round Valley Massacres. White settlers slaughtered 150 Yuki Indians in Round Valley, California. Massacres continued through the spring and summer of 1859. In April 1859, in revenge for the killing of 3 cows and 1 stallion belonging to a white man, California militiamen massacred 240 Indians on the Eel River. On 1 May, Major Johnson reported that six hundred Yukis had been massacred by white settlers "in the last year".
1859 Pit River. White settlers massacred 70 Achomawi Indians (10 men and 60 women and children) in their village on Pit River in California.
1859 Chico Creek. White settlers attacked a Maidu camp near Chico Creek in California, killing indiscriminately 40 Indians.
1860 Massacre at Bloody Rock. A group of 65 Yuki Indians were surrounded and massacred by white settlers at Bloody Rock, in Mendocino County, California.
1860 Indian Island Massacre. In three nearly simultaneous assaults on the Wiyot, at Indian Island, Eureka, Rio Dell, and near Hydesville, California white settlers killed between 200 and 250Wiyot in Humboldt County, California. Victims were mostly women, children and elders, as reported by Bret Harte at Arcata newspaper. Other villages massacred within two days. The main site is National Register of Historic Places in the United States #66000208.
1860 Pease River Massacre. Texas Rangers under Captain Sul Ross attacked a Comanche village in Foard County, Texas, killing indiscriminately a considerable number of Indians.
1860 Otter Massacre. Near Sinker Creek Idaho, 11 persons of the last wagon train of the year were killed and several others were subsequently killed. Some that escaped the initial massacre starved to death
1861 Horse Canyon Massacre. White settlers and Indian allies attacked a Wailaki village in Horse Canyon (Round Valley, California), killing up to 240 Wailakis.
1861 Cookes Canyon Massacres. Apaches massacred hundreds of Americans and Mexicans in and around Cookes Canyon, New Mexico over the course of several months.
1861 Gallinas Massacre. Four Confederate soldiers killed by Chiricahua Apache warriors.
1862 Upper Station Massacre. California settlers killed at least 20 Wailakis in Round Valley, California.
1862 Big Antelope Creek Massacre. California settlers led by notorious Indian hunter Hi Good launched a dawn attack on a Yana village, massacring about 25 Indians.
1862 Dakota War of 1862. As part of the U.S.-Dakota War, the Sioux killed as many as 800 white settlers and soldiers throughout Minnesota. Some 40,000 white settlers fled their homes on the frontier.
1862 Tonkawa Massacre. During the U.S. Civil War, a detachment of irregular Union Indians, mainly Kickapoo, Delaware and Shawnee, accompanied by Caddo allies, attempted to destroy the Tonkawa tribe in Indian Territory. They killed 240 of 390 Tonkawa, leaving only 150 survivors.
1863 Bear River Massacre. Col. Patrick Connor led a United States Army regiment killing 280 Shoshone men, women and children near Preston, Idaho.
1863 Keyesville Massacre. American militia and members of the California cavalry killed 35 Tehachapi men in Kern County, California.
1863-1865 Mowry Massacres. 16 settlers killed in a series of Indian raids at Mowry, Arizona Territory
1864 Cottonwood. 20 Yanas of both sexes killed by white settlers in the town of Cottonwood, California.
1864 Massacre at Bloody Tanks. A group of white settlers led by King S. Woolsey killed 19 Apaches at a "peace parley".
1864 Oak Run Massacre. California settlers massacred 300 Yana Indians who had gathered near the head of Oak Run, California for spiritual ceremony.
1864 Skull Valley Massacre. A group of Yavapai families was lured into a trap and massacred by soldiers under Lt. Monteith in a valley west of Prescott, Arizona (Arizona). The place was named Skull Valley after the heads of the dead Indians left unburied.
1864 Sand Creek Massacre. Members of the Colorado Militia attacked a peaceful village of Cheyenne, killing at least 160 men, women and children at Sand Creek in Kiowa County.
1865 Mud Lake Massacre. US troops under Captain Wells attacked a Paiute camp near Winnemucca Lake, killing 32 Indians. One soldier was slightly wounded during the attack.
1865 Owens Lake Massacre. White vigilantes attacked a Paiute camp on Owens Lake in California, killing about 40 men, women and children.
1865 Three Knolls Massacre. White settlers massacred a Yana community at Three Knolls on the Mill Creek, California.
1866 Circleville Massacre. Mormon militiamen killed 16 Paiute men and women at Circleville, Utah. 6 men were shot, allegedly while trying to escape. The others (3 men and 7 women) had their throats cut. 4 small children were spared.
1867 Aquarius Mountains. Yavapai County Rangers killed 23 Indians (men, women and children) in the southern Aquarius Mountains, Arizona.
1867 Kidder Massacre. Cheyenne and Sioux ambushed and killed a 2nd US Cavalry detachment of eleven men and their Indian guide near Beaver Creek in Sherman County, Kansas. General Custer was an after-the-fact witness at the scene.
1868 Campo Seco. A posse of white settlers massacred 33 Yahis in a cave north of Mill Creek, California.
1868 Washita Massacre. During the American Indian Wars, Lt. Col. G.A.Custer's7th U.S. Cavalry attacked a village of sleeping Cheyenne led by Black Kettle. Custer reported 103 – later revised to 140 – warriors, "some" women and "few" children killed, and 53 women and children taken hostage. Other casualty estimates by cavalry members, scouts and Indians vary widely, with the number of men killed ranging as low as 11 and the numbers of women and children ranging as high as 75. Before returning to their base, the cavalry killed several hundred Indian ponies and burned the village.
1870 Marias Massacre. US troops killed 173 Piegan, mainly women, children and the elderly after being led to the wrong camp by a soldier who wanted to protect his Indian wife's family.
1871 Kingsley Cave Massacre. 4 settlers killed 30 Yahi Indians in Tehama County, California about two miles from Wild Horse Corral in the Ishi Wilderness. It is estimated that this massacre left only 15 members of the Yahi tribe alive
1871 Camp Grant Massacre. Led by the ex-Mayor of Tucson, William Oury, eight Americans, 48 Mexicans and more than 100 allied Pima attacked Apache men, women and children at Camp Grant, Arizona Territory killing 144, with 1 survivor at scene and 29 children sold to slavery. All but eight of the dead were Apache women or children.
1871 Wickenburg massacre. Indians attacked an Arizona stagecoach, killing the driver and his five passengers, leaving two wounded survivors.
1872 Jordan Massacre. 3 settlers killed, 1 woman abducted, apparently by Indians at Middle Fork of Walnut Creek, Kansas
1872 Skeleton Cave Massacre. U.S. troops and Indian scouts killed 76 Yavapai Indian men, women and children in a remote cave in Arizona's Salt River Canyon.
1873 Cypress Hills Massacre. Following a dispute over stolen horses, American wolfers killed approximately 20 Nakoda in Saskatchewan.
1875 Sappa Creek Massacre. Soldiers under Lt Austin Henly trapped a group of 27 Cheyenne, (19 men, 8 women and children) on the Sappa Creek, in Kansas and killed them all.
1877 Big Hole Massacre. US troops under Colonel John Gibbon attacked a Nez Perce village at Big Hole, in Montana Territory. They killed 89 men, women and children before being repulsed by the Indians.
1879 Fort Robinson Massacre.Northern Cheyenne under Dull Knife attempted to escape from confinement in Fort Robinson, Nebraska; U.S. Army forces hunted them down, killing 77 of them. The remains of those killed were repatriated in 1994.
1879 Meeker Massacre. In the beginning of the Ute War, the Ute killed the US Indian Agent Nathan Meeker and 10 others. They also attacked a military unit, killing 13 and wounding 43.
1880 Alma Massacre. The Apache chief Victorio led warriors in an attack on settlers at Alma, New Mexico. On December 19, 1885, the Apache killed an officer and four enlisted men of the8th Cavalry Regiment near Alma.
1889 Kelvin Grade Massacre. The Apache Kid (Haskay-bay-nay-ntayl) and his gang escaped police custody, killing two sheriffs and wounding one settler near present-day Globe, Arizona.
1890 Buffalo Gap Massacre. Several wagonloads of Sioux were killed by South Dakota Home Guard militiamen near French Creek, South Dakota, while visiting a white friend in Buffalo Gap.
1890 Stronghold. South Dakota Home Guard militiamen ambushed and massacred 75 Sioux at the Stronghold, in the northern portion of Pine Ridge Indian Reservation.
1890 Wounded Knee Massacre. Members of the U.S. 7th Cavalry attacked and killed between 130 and 250 Sioux men, women and children at Wounded Knee, South Dakota.
1911 Last Massacre. A group of Shoshone killed four ranchers in Washoe County, Nevada. On 26 February 1911, an American posse killed eight of the Shoshone suspects and captured four children from the band.


FORCED REMOVAL FROM HOMELANDS

For a brief periods after the American Revolution, the United States adopted a policy toward American Indians known as the “conquest” theory. In the Treaty of Fort Stansix of 1784, the Iroquois had to cede lands in western New York and Pennsylvania. Those Iroquois living in the United States (many had gone to Canada where the English gave them refuge) rapidly degenerated as a nation during the last decades of the eighteenth century, losing most of their remaining lands and much of their ability to cope. The Shawnees, Miamis, Delawaresm, Ottawans, Wyandots, and Potawatomis watching the decline of the Iroquois formed their own confederacy and informed the United states that the Ohio river was the boundary between their lands and those of the settlers. It was just a matter of time before further hostilities ensued.

"Indian Boarding School" - Cultural Genocide

FORCED ASSIMILATION

The Europeans saw themselves as the superior culture bringing civilization to an inferior culture. The colonial world view split reality into popular parts: good and evil, body and spirit, man and nature, head and hear, European and primitive. American Indians spirituality lacks these dualism’s; language expresses the oneness of all things. God is not the transcendent Father but the Mother Earth, the Corn Mother, the Great Spirit who nourishes all It is polytheistic, believing in many gods and many levels of deity. “At the basis of most American Native beliefs is the supernatural was a profound conviction that an invisible force, a powerful spirit, permeated the entire universe and ordered the cycles of birth and death for all living things.” Beyond this belief in a universal spirit, most American Indians attached supernatural qualities to animals, heavenly bodies, the seasons, dead ancestors, the elements, and geologic formations. Their world was infused with the divine – The Sacred Hoop. This was not at all a personal being presiding ominpotently over the salvation or damnation of individual people as the Europeans believed.

For the Europeans such beliefs were pagan. Thus, the conquest was rationalized as a necessary evil that would bestow upon the heathen “Indians” a moral consciousness that would redeem their amorality. The world view which converted bare economic self interest into noble, even moral, motives was a notion of Christianity as the one redemptive religion which demands fealty from all cultures. In this remaking of the American Indians the impetus which drove the conquistador’s invading wars not exploration, but the drive to expand an empire, not discovery of new land, but the drive to accumulate treasure, land and cheap labor.

CULTURE

Culture is the expression of a people’s creativity — everything they make which is distinctively theirs: language, music, art, religion, healing, agriculture, cooking style, the institutions governing social life. To suppress culture is to aim a cannonball at the people’s heart and spirit. Such a conquest is more accomplished than a massacre. “We have seen the colonization materially kills the colonized. It must be added that it kills him spiritually. Colonization distorts relationships, destroys and petrifies institutions, and corrupts….both colonizers and the colonized.”

Strategies of targeting American Indian children for assimilation began with violence. Forts were erected by Jesuits, in which indigenous youths were incarcerated, indoctrinated with non-indigenous Christian values, and forced into manual labor. Schooling provided a crucial tool in changing not only the language but the culture of impressionable young people. In boarding schools students could be immersed in a 24 hours bath of assimilation. “The founder of the Carlisle Indian Industrial School in Pennsylvania , Capt. Richard H. Pratt, observed in 1892 that Carlisle has always planted treason to the tribe and loyalty to the nation at large. More crudely put, the Carlisle philosophy was, “Kill the Indian to save the man.” At the boarding schools children were forbidden to speak their native languages, forced to shed familiar clothing for uniforms, cut their hair and subjected to harsh discipline. Children who had seldom heard an unkind word spoken to them were all too often verbally and physically abused by their white teachers. In short, “there was a full-scale attempt at deracination — the uprooting or destruction of a race and its culture.” A few American Indian children were able to run away, others died of illness and some died of homesickness.

The children, forcibly separated from their parents by soldiers often never saw their families until later in their adulthood, after their value-system and knowledge had been supplanted with colonial thinking. When these children returned from boarding schools they no longer knew their native language, they were strangers in their own world, there was a loss, a void of not belonging in the native world, nor the white man’s world. In the movie “Lakota Women,” these children are referred to as “Apple Children [red on the outside, white on the inside]” they do not know where they fit in, they were unable to assimilate into either culture. This confusion and loss of cultural identity, leads to suicide, drinking and violence. The most destructive aspect of alienation is the loss of power, of control over one’s destiny, over one’s memories, through relationships — past and future.

Jose Noriega’s well-documented historical account of the forced indoctrination of colonial thought into the minds of American Indian children as a means of disrupting the generational transmission of cultural values, clearly demonstrates the cultural genocide employed by the U.S. government as a means of separating the American Indians from their land.

FORCED REMOVAL

The “Indian Removal” policy was implemented to “clear” land for white settlers. Removal was more than another assault on American Indians’ land titles. Insatiable greed for land remained a primary consideration, but many people now believed that the removal was the only way of saving American Indians from extermination. As long as the American Indians lived in close proximity to non-Native American communities, they would be decimated by disease, alcohol, and poverty. The Indian Removal Act began in 1830. Forced marches at bayonet-point to relocation settlements resulted in high mortality rates. The infamous removal of the Five Civilized Tribes — the Choctaws, Creeks, Chickasaws, Cherokees, and Seminoles — is a dismal page in United States history. By the 1820’s the Cherokees, who had established a written constitution modeled after the United States Constitution, a newspaper, schools, and industries in their settlements, resisted removal. In 1938 the federal troops evicted the Cherokees. Approximately four thousand Cherokees died during the removal process because of poor planning by the United States Government. This exodus to Indian Territory is known as the Trail of Tears. More than one hundred thousand American Indians eventually crossed the Mississippi River under the authority of the Indian Removal Act.

STERILIZATION

Article II of United Nations General Assembly resolution, 1946: In the present Convention, genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group, as such: (d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group. In the mid-1970s a Choctaw-Tsalagi Indian Health Services doctor was approached by a 26-year-old American Indian woman who desired a “wonb transplant.” She had been sterilized when she was 20 at the Indian Health Service hospital in Claremont, Oklahoma. It was discoverd that 75 percent of the Claremont sterilizations were non-therapeutic, that women American Indians were being prompted to sign sterilization forms they didn’t understand, that they were being told the operations were reversible, and that some women were even being asked to sign sterilization papers while they had yet to come out of birthing sedation.

Common Sense magazine reported that the Indian Health Service “was sterilizing 3,000 Indian women per year, 4 to 6 percent of the child bearing population…Dr. R. T. Ravenholt, [then] director of the federal government’s Office of Population, later confirmed that ‘surgical sterilization has become increasingly important in recent years as one of the advanced methods of fertility management’.” Ravenholt’s response to these inquires “told the population Association of America in St. Louis that the critics were ‘a really radical extremist group lashing out at a responsible program so that revolution would occur’.”

From the beginning of European control there has been an unrelenting drive to commit genocide over another culture. The American Indians were a majority so the Europeans called them an enemy. One of the major facts the United States Government has failed to understand is that the spiritual aspect of life is inseparable from the economic and the political aspects. The loss of tradition and memory will be the loss of positive sense of self. Those reared in traditional American Native societies are inclined to relate events and experiences to one another, they do not organize perceptions or external events in terms of dualities or priorities. This egalitarianism is reflected in the structure of American Indian literature, which does not rely on conflict, crises, and resolution for organization.

INTELLECTUAL RICHES

American Indians felt comfortable with the environment, close to the moods and rhythms of nature, in time with the living planet. Europeans were quite different, viewing the earth itself as lifeless and inorganic, subject to any kind of manipulation or alteration. Europeans tended to be alienated from nature and came to the New World to use the wilderness, to conquer and exploit its natural wealth for private gain.

But for American Indians, the environment was sacred, possessing a cosmic significance equal to its material riches. The earth was sacred — a haven for all forms of life — and it had to be protected, nourished, and even worshipped. Chief Smoholla of the Wanapun tribe illustrated American Native reverence for the earth when he said in 1885:

“God said he was the father of and earth was the mankind; that nature was the law; that the animals, and fish and plants beyond nature, and that man only was sinful.

You ask me to plow the ground! Shall I take a knife and tear my mother’s bosom?

Then when I die she will not take me to her bosom to rest.

You ask me to dig for stone! Shall I dig under her skin for her bones?

Then When I die I cannot enter her body to be born again.

You ask me to cut grass And make hay and sell it, and be rich like white men!

But how dare I cut off my mother’s hair?

American Indians’ agricultural and medical wisdom had been ignored by the European invaders. In their rush to control the land and people much has passed them by and much has been destroyed. Sadly, what seems to have been almost totally ignored is the American Indians’ knowledge that the Earth is their mother. Because their mother continues to give us life we must care for and respect her. This was a ecological view of the earth.

“There are tens of millions of people around the world who, within only the last few centuries — and some cases only the last few years — have seen their successful societies brutally assaulted by ugly destructive forces. Some American Indian societies have been obliterated. Some peoples have suffered separation from the source of their survival, wisdom, power, and identity: their lands. Some have fallen from the pressure, compromised, moved to urban landscapes, and disappeared, but millions of American Indians, including tens of thousands here in the United States, have gained strength in the face of all their adversity. Their strength is rooted in the earth and deserves to succeed.”

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Layton Draper
6 years ago
Huge supporter of Anakbayan Long Beach and their causes.

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Elmo Carreon
6 years ago
Stop the harassment of Human Rights workers.

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Esther C Bangcawayan
6 years ago
I believe the government is obligated to serve & deliver welfare assistance and protect its peoples' rights ~NOT to cause them fear & havoc in their communities. END political vilification. END human rights violations! STOP extra judicial killings!

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Grace Ananayo
6 years ago
Unjust..

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lalyn lopez
6 years ago
To stop the killing of indigineous people

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Joseline Tanguid
6 years ago
Stop political vilification and harrashments of human rights and Indigenous peoples' rights defenders in Ifugao, Cordillera, Philippines.

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kabir bskey
6 years ago
i want to change the system

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Louise Lee
7 years ago
Please be compliant with U.N. human rights treaties that you've signed and stop the harassment of peaceful advocates of the Indigenous Peoples.

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Aubrey Manahan
7 years ago
Standing up for yourself and your culture should not be vilified.