Address Save Nepa Valley Demands नेपाः उपत्यका बचाऔँ महा-अभियानको माग पूरा गर

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हाल नेपाः उपत्यका(अर्थात काठमाडौँ उपत्यका)मा निकै धेरै समस्याहरू आइरहेका छन। उपत्यकामा के कस्ता समस्या छन र कति समस्या छन यसको व्याख्या शायदै गर्नुपर्ने आवश्यकता छैन, किनभने हामी त्यसका भुक्तभोगी हौँ, धेरैले देखेका र सुनेका छौँ। हामी सबै काठमाडौँलाई देशको राजधानी भन्छौँ तर यो राजधानी सबै भन्दा बढी विकसित स्थान मानिन्छ, तर यहाँको अवस्था भने राजधानी सरह कतै छैन। यहाँको हावा, पानी, सम्पूर्णमा नै वरिक्तता छाइसकेको छ। सर्वप्रथम त हामीले विकासको परिभाषा नै बुझेका छैनौँ। मानिसको जनजीवनमा सुधार ल्याउनु भन्दा संरचनामा बढी केन्द्रित गरेको पाइन्छ। त्यसैले यस समस्याहरूका लागि स्थायी समाधान खोज्न एकदम आवश्यक भैसक्यो।

हाम्रा मागहरू यस प्रकारका छन:

सडक विस्तार:

  1. ऐतिहासिक प्राचिन र पुराना बस्तीहरूको मौलिकरा र स्वरूप बिग्रने हुनाले यस बस्तीमा सडक विस्तार गर्नै पाइँदैन।
  2. उपत्यकामा भएका सडकहरू नै राम्रो बनाउने, खाल्डा खुल्डी पुर्ने, हिलो र धुलोबाट मुक्त अनि ढल देखि खानेपानी पाइप व्यपस्थापन कार्य सर्वप्रथम सम्पन्न भैसकेपछि मात्र नयाँ सडक निर्माण गर्न बारे सोच्ने।
  3. विश्वका विभिन्न मुलुकहरूको उदाहरण, एउटा तिकेरै भन्नुपर्दा थाइल्याण्डको ब्याङकक शहरमा चार लेनको फराकिलो सडक देखि आठ लेन सम्मको फराकिलो सडकमा समेत न्युनतम १० देखि ३० मिनेट जाम हुने गर्दछ। सडक विस्तारले ट्राफिक व्यवस्थापनको स्थायी समाधान नगर्ने, जति गाडी र जनचाप अनियन्त्रित ढङ्गले बढ्छ त्यती नै जाम बढ्ने जस्ता तथ्यलाई मध्यनजरमा राख्नुपर्छ। यसै गरी सडक विस्तारको विकल्प खोज्नुपर्ने। उदाहरणका लागि: ऐतिहासिक सम्पदा बस्तीमा स्थानीय व्यक्तिहरूलाई पासको व्यवस्था गर्ने र पैदल यात्रा क्षेत्र घोषणा गर्ने; अनुकुलता अनुसार एकतर्फी सडक निर्धारण, भारी सवारी निषेध, लगायत अन्य व्यवस्थापनका माध्यमहरूमा जोड दिनुपर्छ।
  4. सार्वजनिक सवारी साधनमा सुधार र सुदृढिकरण गर्दै निजी सवारी साधनलाई निरुत्साहित गर्नुपर्छ।
  5. सडक विस्तार गर्नैपरेमा, नगरी नहुने खण्डमा यी सर्थहरू पूरा गर्नुपर्ने:
    क) किन र के कारण सडक विस्तार नगरी नहुने हो, यसको अन्य विकल्प नै नभएको खण्डमा घर जाने, जग्गा जाने जनताहरूलाई कारण देखाउँदै निष्पक्ष ढङले बुझाउनुपर्ने
    ख) न्यायिक ढङले, भू-उपयोग ऐन अनुसार, कानूनी प्रकृयाबाट, एवम् नेपाल सरकारद्वारा हस्ताक्षर गरिएको अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय श्रम सन्धी पालना गरी नेपालको संविधान धारा २५ र ३७, जग्गा प्राप्ति ऐन दफा ३, उपत्यका विकास प्राधिकरण ऐन दफा ११ बमिजिम न्यायिक मुआब्जा दिनुपर्ने
    ग) यस्तो खण्डमा सो सडक विस्तारले कस्ता सकरात्मक र नकरात्मक असर पुर्याउँछ भन्ने अध्ययन गराइनुपर्छ, जसमा सामाजिक, सांस्कृतिक, आर्थिक सम्पूर्ण पक्ष हेरिनुपर्छ
    घ) जन्ताको घर भत्काउन अगाडी उक्त क), ख) र ग) वाक्य अनुसारको मापदण्ड पूरा गरेर पुनःस्थापना र क्षतिपूर्ती पूर्ण रूपमा प्रदान भैसकेपछि मात्र गर्न पाइन्छ।

बाहिरी चक्रपथ

  1. बाहिरी चक्रपथ निर्माण कार्य थालनी नै गलत र अपारदर्शी ढङले भएको छ। बाहिरी चक्रपथ किन निर्माण गर्न लागेका हुन, यसका केके फाइदाहरू छन, बाहिरी चक्रपथका प्रभाव केके हुन, यस बारे केके अध्ययन भएका छन, यसबारे केके अध्ययन हुन बाकी छ, यसको विकल्प केके हुन, किन विकल्प प्रस्ट नपारिएको, यसको डि.पि.आर लयायतका अन्य सबै अध्ययन अनुसन्धान र बजेट विनियोजनका कुराका पारदर्शी र जन-सहभागी मुलक हुनुपर्छ।आज सम्म भएका सम्पूर्ण सम्बन्धित अध्ययन पत्रहरू सार्वजनिक गरेर अध्ययन गर्न बाँकी केके भन्ने कुरा प्रष्ट गरेर सबै प्रकृया र डाटा पारदर्शी हुनुपर्छ। बाहिरी चक्रपथको विकल्प खुलाउनुपर्ने, यसबाट ती स्थानहरूमा कस्तो असर पुग्छ,त्यसको मापाङ्कन र अध्ययन पनि गर्नुपर्ने हुन्छ।
  2. २०४५ तत्कालीन श्री पाँच सरकारको भौतिक योजना तथा निर्माण मन्त्रालय काठमाडौँ नगर उपत्यका विकास समिति द्वारा गरिएको अनुसन्धान "काठमाडौँ उपत्यकाको दीर्घकालीन विकास अवधारणा" भन्ने प्रतिवेदनमा बाहिरी चक्रपथ वा बस्ती बढाउने प्रति दिएका सुझावहरूलाई पुनः गम्भीरतापूर्वक लिनुपर्छ।
  3. नेपाः उपत्यका बचाऔँ महा-अभियान बाहिरी चक्रपथको विरोध गर्छ किनभने:
    क) जनसङ्ख्यात्मक हिसाबले देशको ११ दशमलव ८ प्रतिशत जनसङ्ख्या धान्ने उपत्यकाको क्षेत्रफल देशको ० दशमलव ४ प्रतिशत मात्र हुनेहुनाले सडक निर्माण पश्चात बस्ती बढ्ने, त्यो पनि स्प्रल(Sprawl) हुने र अहिले नै उपत्यकाको जनसङ्ख्या र जनघनत्व अत्याधिक रहेको खण्डमा अझै बढाउने बढ्दा समस्या उत्पन्न हुन सक्ने हुनाले यसबाट उच्च जनसङ्ख्या वृद्दि र यसबाट ल्याउने थप समस्याहरू निम्त्याउँछ।
    ख) कृषि विकास मत्रालयको सन २०१२-१३को मापाङ्कनमा नेपालले त्यस वर्षमा ९९ दशमलव ३४ अर्ब रूपियाँको खाद्यान्न आयात गरेको थियो र यस अगाडी २०११-१२ को मापाङ्कन भन्दा ३० दशमलव ६३% प्रतिशतले बढेको कृषि मन्त्रालयको भनाइ रहँदा नेपाल खाद्यान्नको मामिलामा घाटा खाँदै आएको देश रहेको र यही खाद्यान्न आयात बढ्दै गएको क्रममा यदी यस उपत्यकाका बाकी उर्वरा र अत्ति उर्वरा जमिनमा विभिन्न तरिकाले खाद्यान्न उत्पादन गर्न सकिँदैन भने, हामी खाद्यान्नमा पूर्ण रूपले तराईमा मात्र होइन, भारत सँग निर्भर हुनुपर्ने स्थिति आउने सक्ने एवम हामी सबैलाई अहिले यहाँको खाद्यान्न सुरक्षाको अभाव बारे छिन्तन रहेको छ। त्यसैले यस क्षेत्रमा बाहिरी चक्रपथ होइन, आधुनिक कृषि, अर्गानिक खेती गरेर कृषक जन्तालाई सुलभ आर्थिक लाभ प्राप्त गराउने र खाद्यान्न उब्जनि गर्नुपर्छ।
    ग) बाहिरी चक्रपथले कङ्क्रिट जङ्गलको क्षेत्र उकासिने हुँदा यसका कारण पानी रिचार्ज नहुने, पानीका स्रोत साधन सुक्ने, जमिन भासिने खतरा, तापक्रम बढ्ने, वातावरणमा ह्रास आउने, अझै बढी कार्बोन वायुलाई प्रोत्साहन गर्ने, हावाको स्तर न्युन बनाउने, प्रदुषणलाई घटाउन छोडेर अझ तीव्र गतिले बढाउने, जल स्रोतको अभाव पनि हुनेछ।

स्याटलाइट शहर वा स्मार्ट शहर

  1. नयाँ शहर निर्माण यही उपत्यकाको परिशर भित्र त हामी चर्को विरोधमै छौँ। उपत्यकामा बस्ती अनियन्तित्र ढङले बढ्ने क्रमले अनेकौँ समस्याहरू निम्त्याएका छन। उपत्यका भित्र बन्ने शहरले अन्तराष्ट्रिय मापदण्ड अनुसारको स्याटलाइट शहर बनाउन सम्भव छैन। हामी उपत्यकाका चार कुनामा नयाँ शहर बन्ने विरोधमा छौँ।
  2. उपत्यकामा तत्काल रहेका शहरी परिषर र अर्ध शहरी क्षेत्रको विकासमा लगानी गरिनुपर्छ। नयाँ शहर बनाउने होइन, भएका शहरमा विकास गर्ने हो, भएका शहरमा सफा खानेपानी पुर्याउने हो, भएका शहरमा सुविधा पुर्याउने हो, भएका शहरहरूका बसिन्दाहरूको आर्थिक उन्नती र विकासमा लगानी हुनुपर्छ। यसमा विशेष गरी सम्पदा सँगै सम्पदा बस्तीहरूको मैलिक रूपमा विकास गर्नु आवश्यक छ।
  3. नयाँ शहर बनाउने नै हो भने देशका अन्य भेगमा बनाउनुहोस। स्याटलाइट शहर पाँचखालमा बनाउनुहोस। स्मार्ट सिटी डोटीमा बनाउनुहोस। नयाँ शहर कर्णालीको केही क्षेत्रमा बनाउनुहोस। शहरको आवश्यकता त्यहाँ छ, उपत्यका आफैमा शहर हो र यसमा अझै धेरै शहर थप्नु नै विनाश निम्त्याउनु हो।

मधेस-नेपाल मण्डल द्रुतमार्ग
नेपाल सरकारले राष्ट्रिय गौरवको योजनाका रूपले राज्यको आर्थिक लाभ गराउन मधेस-नेपाल मण्डल द्रुतमार्गको परियोजना ल्याएको छ। मधेसको निजगढबाट नेपाल मण्डलको ख्वना सम्मको यस द्रुतमार्गले उपत्यकाका ख्वना(खोकना) र बुङ(बुङमती) जस्ता ऐतिहासिक बस्ती धरापमा पार्ने, वातावरणमा ठूलो क्षती पुर्याउने देखि स्थानीय जनतालाई अन्यायम पार्ने र विस्थापित गर्ने भएको छ। अझ त ख्वनाको खेतहरूको बीचमा अन्त्य हुने यस द्रुतमार्गले ख्वनाको मौलिकता, सिकाली क्षेत्र, जात्रा र अन्य सांस्कृतिक महत्वका विषयहरूमा ठूलो क्षती पुर्याउने देखेको छ। यहाँका जात्रा नै नष्ट हुने, प्राचिन क्षेत्रहरूको अस्तित्व नै संकटमा परेको छ। यसै गरी स्थानीय जन्ताले एकदम अपुग मुआब्जा, सित्तैमा जग्गा दिनुपर्ने सरह गरिएको व्यवहार र आफू विस्थापनमै पर्नुपर्ने व्यहोरा पनि जनाएका छन।

यसैले गर्दा द्रुतमार्गलाई सिनेरीबाट देवीचौर हुँदै उपत्यका पस्नबाट रोकेर, द्रुतमार्ग बनाउने तर, उपत्यकाको सिमाना सम्म मात्र ल्याउने स्थानीयको माग छ। उपत्यका अर्थात त्यस स्थानको ललितपुर जिल्लाको सिमाना सम्म मात्र ल्याएर, त्यही बसपार्क बनाएर ख्वना सम्म आउनबाट रोक्दा, ख्वना र बुङ्गका जनतालाई पनि मर्का पर्दैन, साथै त्यस उपत्यकाका सिमानामा बसेका ग्रामीण क्षेत्रको विकास हुन्छ। यहाँ उपत्यका भित्र आयो भने विनाश हुन्छ विस्थापित हुन्छ भने उपत्यकाको सिमाना सम्म आउँदा त्यहाँमा मानिसहरू अझै पनि विकट र ग्रामीण अवस्थामा निर्वाह गरिरहेका भएर उनीहरूलाइ धेरै नै उन्नति हुन्ने भएकाले मधेस-नेपाल मण्डल द्रुतमार्ग उपत्यकाको सिमाना सम्म मात्र आउनुपर्छ।

सबै भन्दा अमिल्दो कुरा त जति पनि परियोजनाहरू छन यी सबै एक अर्का सँग समन्वय नै छैन र धेरै स्थानमा बाँझेका छन। जस्तै ख्वना एउटा सानो क्षेत्रमा द्रुतमार्ग पनि त्यही, स्याटलाइट शहर पनि त्यही, बाहिरी चक्रपथ पनि त्यहाँबाटै, हाइटेन्सन लाइन लगायत अनेकौँ परोयोजनाहरू एकै ठाउँमा कुनै समन्वय बिना बाँझेको परिस्थितिलाई ध्यानमा राख्नुपर्छ।

सूचना प्रदान
कुनै पनि विकास निर्मानका कार्य गर्दा अग्रिम सुचना दिनु आवश्यक हुन्छ। यसमा नेपालद्वारा हस्ताक्षर गरिएको अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय श्रम संगठन सन्धि अनुसार स्वतन्त्र अग्रिम सुसुचित मञ्जुरी(Free Prior Informed Consent) को धारणा पालना गर्नुपर्छ। यसै गरी परियोजनाका सम्पूर्ण अध्ययन अनुसन्धानका पत्रहरू सार्वजनिक गराइनु पर्छ र जनताको टिप्पणी गर्न मिल्ने गरी समय दिनुपर्छ। प्रभावित जनमानसलाई घर घरमा पत्र पठाइनुपर्छ। यसमा जनताले बुझ्ने भाषाको प्रयोग गरिनुपर्छ। यसबारे सुचना दिँदा स्वतन्त्र निष्पक्ष रहेर, फाइदा/बेफाइदा, सकरात्मक प्रभाव/नकरात्मक प्रभाव सबैको सुचना दिएर मात्र कुनै डर, त्रास, लोभ नदेखाइ निष्पक्ष ढङले बुझाएर सोच्ने समय दिएर मात्र मञ्जुरी लिनुपर्छ।

Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal, is known as Yén in the local language, like the name its native values and norms have been dying out. Nepal as being in a quest of development is still struggling while Kathmandu is the most developed city, it is still suffocating even after all the power had been centralized. The political changes in Nepal have brought many changes in social and economic structure due to which the capital have suffered a lot. In the flow of democracy, the populist politicians came with “narratives of development” in order to gain support and vote from the people. Within the past years, these narratives have been fit into the mind of citizens, that has provided a vision in people on “what development actually means”. Not to be surprised, this is the narrative of development that Western countries in general promoted after the Second World War and are now probably regretting it. It is the narrative of development that does not prioritize the human aspect, sustainability aspect and fully infrastructural scale. Some people said that they will turn Nepal into Singapore or Switzerland. In this process they forgot the native values of Nepal; they intend to replicate foreign countries. Within the past years, these narratives have become norms into the mind of citizens. The understanding of the concept of development has been corrupted.

Kathmandu, Capital city of Nepal and also known as the city of Temple is gradually losing its status these days. With the human civilization, the capital city’s beauty has entered into the phase of retrogression. As the number of peoples grew, the infrastructures of building and roads has built in such a manner that it needs Google to find the free land now. Common properties such as temples, stupas rivers and park become victim of people and their status is depreciating each day.

The contemporary demands of Save Nepa Valley are contemporary issues related.

With regards to road expansion:
Ancient towns have its own town planning and the streets and its corners has its won historical importance, so road expansion cannot be done in historical towns.
Provide first priority to make the existing road proper, fill the ditches, proper streets paved with stones and bricks in the ancient towns while proper pitch roads.
Road expansion is not at all the solution for traffic jams. Taking an example: Bangkok city having wider streets that Kathmandu has more traffic jams. The fact that uncontrolled unmanaged increase of vehicle number has caused more problems. An example of alternate can be: Declaring certain areas as pedestrian only areas, Declaring certain areas permitting only cycles, Declaring certain areas with four wheel prohibition, seeking by-pass, one way, heavy vehicle restricted areas and many others. The streets of ancient towns can be freely pedestrian area with a pass for local people.
Focus on improvement of public vehicles.
If in case there are certain areas where road expansion must be done and there is no alternative at all, the following criteria must be met:
a) The reason why road expansion is alternative-less in this case must be shown to those people whose houses shall be affected by it.
b) In a justified way, according to Land Use Act, through the legal process and following the international laws Nepal has signed to(like ILO 169) and on the basis of Nepal’s constitution article 25 and 37 , Land Acquisition Act article 3, compensation should be provided, before the demolishing house. Only in such case, road expansion can be done by proper relocation, of shelter as well as their economic activity. Relocation will be done first, then also if the person is economically hampered, it must be re-established or compensated in case of severe loss.


With regards to Outer Ringroad:
The starting of this process itself is not transparent. First of all, all the research papers must be public. Why is this being made, what are its advantages, what are its impacts, what studies have been done regarding this, what studies are not done yet, the DPR of the project, what are the alternatives of this must be clear to all public. The study papers of this project must be made public, as well as the study of its impact on people should be done.
In 2045 B.S. The then Royal Shree Pach Government of Nepal had performed a study regarding Outer ringroad through Ministry of Physical Infrastructure and Transport, which suggests it as a wrong path of urbanization in Kathmandu. This research paper must be taken seriously.
Save Nepa Valley Movement takes a stand against this project because this is hazardous in terms of environment of the valley. This projects affects air, water, land and many environmental ecological aspects of the valley, from ground water recharge, air pollution, green spaces, increase in temperature, concrete jungle and lot more issues around. Similarly, this leads to over population, lack of resources, finishing the fertile green land, massive sprawling, etc. This also hijacks many of the ancient towns and culturally important spaces of the native people, leading many towns to be adversely affected. A small kind of research is done on this project, regarding its impacts to environment as well as people, but it is only available in Gorkhali language here.


With regards to Sattelite City or Smart City:
This valley is already an urban space, a city that has been left out in very un-managed way. In this terms, the proposed areas of satellite city in four corner of this valley actually attach with the existing urban premises that is going to cause more of disaster. The proposed four corners of valley do not meet the criteria of being a satellite city, neither in terms of distance, nor in terms of resources, sustainability, self-dependence and environmental factors. Satellite city should rather be made in places like Panchkhal, Dhading, and many other districts and provinces which really needs a new city.

Smart city itself is a very modern concept. But allocating some new space attached to present city premises and building a new city is not a good or beneficiary concept. The existing city premises should be turned into a smart city, with our native components and outlook. It should both co-operate with modernism technology and our indigenous knowledge and identity of Kathmandu. An example could be utilizing the Pukhoo(ponds) in the inner parts of town for emergency fire extinguisher with a modern technology the residents use.

There should be more investment in improving the existing urban and sub-urban premises and being focused on establishing new cities in such corners of Nepal, where is it very necessary.

With regards to Nepal Mandal- Madhesh fast track
The Nepal Mandal – Madhesh Fast track aims to join Nijgadh of Madhesh and Khona of Nepal Mandal. This project is also taken as a project of national pride. But this pride is actually destroying our real pride. The state has declared a road as a pride, in cost of demolishing the old Khoka(also known as Khokana) town, which is our actual national pride. A Newa town with every distinctive feature, from art, architecture to the streets, courtyards and town planning, is the actual pride of Nepal. You can learn more about the importance and features of Newa architecture and Newa town planning here.

This project will affect the ancient town of Khona and Bunga, causing a great environmental crackdown, since most fertile land of the valley is located in those areas and also the green spaces left. Similarly, the locals are vulnerable for displacement. This will also affect cultural hubs like Sikali area, and various local festivals and processions. When we talk about the compensation provided for this project, it is very less and inadequate at all. Government’s plan of fast track will bring millions of rupees to them, but will leave a pick penny for the locals who actually left land for it. This is complete injustice and misuse of power by state.

So in this case, Save Nepa Valley demands to change the alignment of fast track to touch with the border of the valley. The border area of the corner of the valley is still very backward area and when this project starts from there, the local people, basically the Tamang villages will have many benefits; and there won’t be need to adversely effect the Newa towns. So the alignment of this Fast Track should be only upto the border premises of Tamang village.

With regards to information on any development projects
Any project that is large and effects a larger circle, any sort of master plan or grand design needs to involve those people who shall be affected by the projects. In that involvement, those people are to be given a space and a say in the decision making level of the project. There must be consent of the local people in any such of master plan being designed that will have impact for the place and the people for generations and generations. They must  be informed of what is happening in their land and how will this impact them.

Free means free from any threat, free from any greed. When providing information, authority is not allowed to show threat to people. They are not allowed to show any greed to people. But in case of many places like Bunga and Khwona, locals are being shown greed and threat. The people who are living in tent, because of earthquake, have been shown threat that government will not provide them aid for re-building and when compensation of their land is coming, take it and build your house. Their pain of home-less-ness is being used to endorse outer ringroad project. It also means to propaganda and no yellow journalism, but we all know to what extent is this being followed.

Prior means before the project goes to any implementation phase, people need a prior information. No one can come up and say someone, we are expanding road you need to get compensation of our wish and leave your house in a week. The information is to be prior the project implementation.

Informed means to make the locals and affected people understand what is happening in their land and what impacts will it create on their lives. This must not be biased. When outer ringroad project is being informed to the locals, all sort of information should be provided. People must be neutrally​, fully and properly made understand about the projects. They need to be told on what pros would hit, while also shoe them the cons. One cannot simply hide the negative impacts of the project and only say the positive ones. One needs to clearly explain building this means this, will lead to this. One must be transparent will all the budget of the project flowing in, where is would be used and how will it be used. One needs to be fully transparent on what base is the project, and for what reason have they come up with it. One needs to be fully transparent on every study that has been done regarding the project, from impact assesment, cultural assesment, environmental assesment and all, and even in the phases of implementation, its methodologies, also provide enough time for people to study on the report and pass their comments.



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