STOP the Disposal of Fukushima Nuclear Wastewater into the Ocean

STOP the Disposal of Fukushima Nuclear Wastewater into the Ocean

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Responsible Divers started this petition to japanese government and

[*Korean/Japanese ver. followed]

 

A petition of:  Responsible Divers (Seoyeong Kwon, Yuna Lee,), Ghostdiving Korea (Seungkyu Park), Diphda Jeju (Subin Byeon)

Please withdraw the Japanese government’s resolution to discharge contaminated water from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant into the Pacific Ocean.

On 13th April 2021, the Japanese government decided to discharge contaminated wastewater from the wrecked Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant into the Pacific Ocean after treatment through the Multi-nuclide Removal Facility (ALPS). Fukushima’s radioactive wastewater contains more than 60 different highly-concentrated radioactive substances, including Cesium-137 and Strontium-90[i]. As of now, ALPS is unable to treat Tritium and Carbon-14, and they pose a high risk of being concentrated through the food chain and/or accumulated in seabed sediments even when diluted and disposed below the safety standards[ii]. It also should be considered the fact that the safety standard is set for the cooling water from normally operating nuclear power plant, rather than the contaminated water that has contacted fuel directly through meltdown as in the case of Fukushima[iii].

Further, it is unclear whether the test results of treating small amounts of water are applicable to the 1.25 million tons of water in question. The Tokyo Electric Power Co.(TEPCO) contracted with Toshiba and Hitachi, which have little experience in treating contaminated water from nuclear power plants, excluding Purolite, which developed and participated in ALPS technology experiments. Therefore, technical experts, including those within TEPCO, are concerned that the results of the experiment, which is the foundation for the decision to discharge, may be different from actual contaminated water treatment that will continue for several decades[iv]. Already in 2018, TEPCO admitted to the existence of cases where other dangerous nuclides slipped through the ALPS process, after 5 years of their first acknowledgement[v],[vi].

So far, the Japanese government’s investigation and explanation are not sufficiently rigorous to estimate the environmental impact of the aforementioned ocean discharges[vii],[viii], and TEPCO has continuously been failing to build trust and accountability[ix],[x],[xi],[xii]. It is likely that reducing cost and clearing its name from being nuclear accident country are the main drivers for this decision by TEPCO and the Japanese government, as there are other options that better minimize environmental risk, such as storing the water up to the tritium half-life and then treating it with more advanced water treatment technology. Also, without consent from countries bordering the ocean, which will be directly affected in the case of failure, it is hard not to say the decision is made arbitrarily. As divers, who immerse ourselves into the ocean with love, we very much regret this decision.

Hence, we demand the withdrawal of the Japanese government’s decision to dump radioactive water from the Fukushima nuclear power plant into the ocean. Further, we request the development of safer treatment plans for radioactive water based on scientific and environmental grounds. Finally, we request transparency and objectivity from the Japanese government in decision-making surrounding this situation through international dialogue which includes neighbouring countries.

2021.5.6.

Responsible Divers (Seoyeong Kwon, Yuna Lee)
Ghostdiving Korea (Seungkyu Park)
Diphda Jeju (Subin Byeon)

 

[i] BOOKLET to Provide Basic Information Regarding Health Effects of Radiation (2018) Japanese Ministry of the Environment. Retrieved on 20, Apr 2021. https://www.env.go.jp/en/chemi/rhm/basic-info/1st/02-02-04.html
[ii] Buesseler, K. O. (2020). Opening the floodgates at Fukushima. Science, 369(6504), 621–622. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abc1507
[iii] Japan plans to release Fukushima’s wastewater into the ocean. (2021, April 14). Science | AAAS. https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2021/04/japan-plans-release-fukushima-s-contaminated-water-ocean
[iv] Burnie, S. (2020, October). Stemming the tide 2020: The reality of the Fukushima radioactive water crisis. Greenpeace. https://www.greenpeace.org/static/planet4-japan-stateless/2020/10/5e303093-greenpeace_stemmingthetide2020_fukushima_radioactive_water_crisis_en_final.pdf
[v] ALPS system at Fukushima No.1 Plant Failing to remove more than tritium from toxic cooling water (19, Aug 2018) The Japan Times. Retrieved on 20, Apr 2021. https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2018/08/19/national/alps-system-fukushima-no-1-plant-failing-remove-tritium-toxic-cooling-water/
[vi] Fukushima plant's ALPS treatment system in trouble (27, Aug 2018) Water Technology Online. Retrieved on 20 Apr 2021. https://www.watertechonline.com/process-water/article/16212844/fukushima-plants-alps-treatment-system-in-trouble
[vii] Tritiated Water Task Force. (2016, June). Tritiated Water Task Force. Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. https://www.meti.go.jp/english/earthquake/nuclear/decommissioning/pdf/20160915_01a.pdf
[viii] Japanese Subcommittee on Handling of the ALPS Treated Water. (2020, February). The Subcommittee on Handling of the ALPS Treated Water Report. Japanese Nuclear Accident Response Office, Agency for Natural Resources and Energy. https://www.meti.go.jp/english/earthquake/nuclear/decommissioning/pdf/20200210_alps.pdf
[ix] Former Tepco executives found not guilty of criminal negligence in Fukushima nuclear disaster. (2019, September 19). The Japan Times. https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2019/09/19/national/crime-legal/tepco-trio-face-tokyo-court-ruling-criminal-case-stemming-fukushima-nuclear-disaster/
[x] Tepco admits not repairing Fukushima No. 1 seismometers that broke last year. (2021, February 23). The Japan Times. https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2021/02/23/national/tepco-seismometers-fukushima/
[xi] Fackler, M. (2012, October 12). Tepco Admits Inadequate Precautions at Nuclear Plant. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/13/world/asia/tepco-admits-failure-in-acknowledging-risks-at-nuclear-plant.html
[xii] Yoshida, R. (2016, February 24). Tepco admits it should have declared meltdowns at Fukushima plant much earlier. The Japan Times. https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2016/02/24/national/tepco-admits-initial-assessments-fukushima-meltdowns-wrong/

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                                                   탄   원   서

탄원인대표 : 해양환경보호단 레디 (대표 권서영, 이유나), 고스트다이빙코리아 (대표 박승규), 디프다 제주 (대표 변수빈)

                                                  탄  원  취  지
일본의 후쿠시마 원전 오염수 해양 방류 결정을 철회하여 주십시오.


                                                  탄  원  내  용

2021년 4월 13일 일본정부는 후쿠시마 원전 오염수를 다핵종제거설비(ALPS)로 여과하여 바다에 방류하기로 결정하였습니다. 후쿠시마의 초고농도 방사성물질 오염수는 매우 위험한 세슘-137과 스트론튬-90 등 60여가지 핵종을 포함하고 있습니다[i]. 그러나 현재 ALPS기술로는 삼중수소와 탄소-14를 처리할 수 없으며, 이를 희석하여 기준치 이하로 방출하더라도 먹이사슬을 통해 집중되거나 해저침전물에 축적될 우려가 있습니다[ii]. 또한 방류 기준치가 후쿠시마의 경우처럼 멜트다운으로 연료와 접촉한 오염수가 아닌 정상 가동하는 원전의 관리 방침이라는 점 역시 간과하고 있습니다[iii].

나아가 소량의 물을 처리한 실험 결과가 현재 125만톤에 달하는 오염수에 장기간 적용 가능한지 여부도 불확실합니다. 도쿄전력은 ALPS기술 개발 및 실험 당시 참여했던 미국 Purolite 사를 배제하고 원전 오염수 처리 경험이 거의 없는 일본 Toshiba 및 Hitachi 사와 계약을 체결하였습니다. 때문에 도쿄전력 내부 인사를 포함한 기술 전문가들은 해양 방류 결정의 토대가 되는 실험 결과와 실제 오염수 처리 결과가 다를 수 있음을 우려하고 있습니다[iv]. 이미 도쿄전력은 일부 위험 핵종이 APLS를 통해 당초 실험에 따른 목표 기준치만큼 걸러지지 않는다는 사실을 5년간 숨기다가 2018년에야 인정한 바 있습니다[v],[vi].

따라서 지금까지 발표된 일본 정부의 조사결과와 설명으로는 해양 방류로 인한 환경적 영향을 충분히 파악하기 어려울 뿐 아니라[vii],[viii], 이미 신뢰도가 낮은 도쿄전력의 오염수 처리를 믿기 어렵습니다[ix],[x],[xi],[xii]. 삼중수소 반감기 이상 장기 보존 후, 더 발달된 수처리 기술력을 통해 정화하는 등의 여타 선택지 대신, 처리 비용을 최우선시하는 동시에 원전사고국이라는 오명을 벗기 위한 정치적 결정이라 생각지 않을 수 없습니다[xiii]. 또한 유사시 직접적 영향을 받을 수 있는 태평양 인접국 및 일본 주변국의 동의를 얻지 않은 결정은 독단이 아닐 수 없습니다. 이러한 결정에 바다를 사랑하는 다이버로서 심히 유감을 표하는 바입니다.

이에 일본 정부가 원전 오염수의 2023년 해양 방류 결정을 철회할 것을 요구합니다. 또한 과학적 근거를 바탕으로 환경적으로 더욱 안전한 처리 방안을 강구하기를 촉구합니다. 마지막으로, 태평양 인접국과의 국제 공조를 통해 본 사태와 관련한 의사결정의 투명성 및 객관성을 담보하기를 강력히 요구합니다.

2021.05.06

탄원인 대표 권서영, 박승규, 변수빈, 이유나


[i] BOOKLET to Provide Basic Information Regarding Health Effects of Radiation (2018) Japanese Ministry of the Environment. Retrieved on 20, Apr 2021. https://www.env.go.jp/en/chemi/rhm/basic-info/1st/02-02-04.html
[ii] Buesseler, K. O. (2020). Opening the floodgates at Fukushima. Science, 369(6504), 621–622. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abc1507
[iii] Japan plans to release Fukushima’s wastewater into the ocean. (2021, April 14). Science | AAAS. https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2021/04/japan-plans-release-fukushima-s-contaminated-water-ocean
[iv] Burnie, S. (2020, October). Stemming the tide 2020: The reality of the Fukushima radioactive water crisis. Greenpeace. https://www.greenpeace.org/static/planet4-japan-stateless/2020/10/5e303093-greenpeace_stemmingthetide2020_fukushima_radioactive_water_crisis_en_final.pdf
[v] ALPS system at Fukushima No.1 Plant Failing to remove more than tritium from toxic cooling water (19, Aug 2018) The Japan Times. Retrieved on 20, Apr 2021. https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2018/08/19/national/alps-system-fukushima-no-1-plant-failing-remove-tritium-toxic-cooling-water/
[vi] Fukushima plant's ALPS treatment system in trouble (27, Aug 2018) Water Technology Online. Retrieved on 20 Apr 2021. https://www.watertechonline.com/process-water/article/16212844/fukushima-plants-alps-treatment-system-in-trouble
[vii] Tritiated Water Task Force. (2016, June). Tritiated Water Task Force. Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. https://www.meti.go.jp/english/earthquake/nuclear/decommissioning/pdf/20160915_01a.pdf
[viii] Japanese Subcommittee on Handling of the ALPS Treated Water. (2020, February). The Subcommittee on Handling of the ALPS Treated Water Report. Japanese Nuclear Accident Response Office, Agency for Natural Resources and Energy. https://www.meti.go.jp/english/earthquake/nuclear/decommissioning/pdf/20200210_alps.pdf
[ix] Former Tepco executives found not guilty of criminal negligence in Fukushima nuclear disaster. (2019, September 19). The Japan Times. https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2019/09/19/national/crime-legal/tepco-trio-face-tokyo-court-ruling-criminal-case-stemming-fukushima-nuclear-disaster/
[x] Tepco admits not repairing Fukushima No. 1 seismometers that broke last year. (2021, February 23). The Japan Times. https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2021/02/23/national/tepco-seismometers-fukushima/
[xi] Fackler, M. (2012, October 12). Tepco Admits Inadequate Precautions at Nuclear Plant. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/13/world/asia/tepco-admits-failure-in-acknowledging-risks-at-nuclear-plant.html
[xii] Yoshida, R. (2016, February 24). Tepco admits it should have declared meltdowns at Fukushima plant much earlier. The Japan Times. https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2016/02/24/national/tepco-admits-initial-assessments-fukushima-meltdowns-wrong/
[xiii] Ibid. (Burnie, S. 2020)

 

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                                                    嘆 願 書

弾原人代表: 海洋環境保護団レディ (代表 クォン·ソヨン、イ·ユナ), ゴーストダイビングコリア(代表 パク·スンギュ), ディフダ 済州(代表 ピョン·スビン)

                                                  嘆願の趣旨

福島第一原子力発電所からの汚染水の海洋放出決定の撤回を求める。

                                                 嘆願の内容

2021年4月13日、日本政府は福島第一原子力発電所構内で発生する汚染水を多核種除去設備(ALPS)で浄化し、海洋に放出することを決めました。福島の超高濃度の放射性物質で汚染された汚染水には非常に危険なセシウム137やストロンチウム90など、60余りの核種が含まれています[i]。ところが、現在のALPS記述では三重水素と炭素14を除去できず、これを希釈して基準値以下にしてから放出するとしても食物連鎖を通じて蓄積したり、海底沈殿物として蓄積したりする恐れがあります[ii]。また、放流基準値が福島の原発のようにメルトダウンを通じて燃料と接触した汚染水でなく、正常に稼働している原発の管理方針であることも看過しています[iii]。

さらに、少量の水を処理した実験結果が現在の125万トンに至る汚染水に長期間適用可能かどうかも不透明であります。東京電力はALPS技術を開発及び実験する際参加した米国のPurolite社を排除し、原発からの汚染水を処理した経験が無きに等しい日本の東芝及び日立と契約を結びました。このため、東京電力内部人事を含む技術専門家は, 海洋放流決定のもとである実験結果と実際の汚染水処理で違いが出ることを懸念しています[iv]。東京電力はすでに一部の核種がAPLSを通じて当初の実験による目標基準値程度まで除去できないという事実を5年間隠し、2018年にようやく認めた事があります[v],[vi]。

従って今まで発表した日本政府の調査結果と説明だけでは海洋放流による環境への影響を十分把握することができないだけでなく[vii],[viii]、すでに信頼性の低い東京電力の汚染水処理は信じ難いです。三重水素の半減期まで保存した後、より発展した水処理技術力による浄化などの別の選択肢の代わりに、処理費用を最優先すると同時に原発事故の国という汚名を返上するための政治的決定としか考えられません[ix],[x],[xi],[xii]。また、事ある時直接的な影響を受ける可能性のある太平洋の隣接国及び日本の周辺国の同意を得ていない決定は、独断と言わざるを得ません[xiii]。このような決定に対して海を愛するダイバーとして非常に残念で遺憾に思います。

それゆえ日本政府が原子力発電所の汚染水を2023年に海洋に放流すると決定したことを撤回するよう求めます。また科学的根拠を基に環境により安全な処理方法を講じるよう呼びかけます。最後に太平洋諸国との国際協力を通じて本事態に関する意思決定の透明性及び客観性を担保するよう強く求めます。

2021年5月6日

弾原人代表 クォン·ソヨン、イ·ユナ、パク·スンギュ、ピョン·スビン


[i] BOOKLET to Provide Basic Information Regarding Health Effects of Radiation (2018) Japanese Ministry of the Environment. Retrieved on 20, Apr 2021. https://www.env.go.jp/en/chemi/rhm/basic-info/1st/02-02-04.html
[ii] Buesseler, K. O. (2020). Opening the floodgates at Fukushima. Science, 369(6504), 621–622. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abc1507
[iii] Japan plans to release Fukushima’s wastewater into the ocean. (2021, April 14). Science | AAAS. https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2021/04/japan-plans-release-fukushima-s-contaminated-water-ocean
[iv] Burnie, S. (2020, October). Stemming the tide 2020: The reality of the Fukushima radioactive water crisis. Greenpeace. https://www.greenpeace.org/static/planet4-japan-stateless/2020/10/5e303093-greenpeace_stemmingthetide2020_fukushima_radioactive_water_crisis_en_final.pdf
[v] ALPS system at Fukushima No.1 Plant Failing to remove more than tritium from toxic cooling water (19, Aug 2018) The Japan Times. Retrieved on 20, Apr 2021. https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2018/08/19/national/alps-system-fukushima-no-1-plant-failing-remove-tritium-toxic-cooling-water/
[vi] Fukushima plant's ALPS treatment system in trouble (27, Aug 2018) Water Technology Online. Retrieved on 20 Apr 2021. https://www.watertechonline.com/process-water/article/16212844/fukushima-plants-alps-treatment-system-in-trouble
[vii] Tritiated Water Task Force. (2016, June). Tritiated Water Task Force. Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. https://www.meti.go.jp/english/earthquake/nuclear/decommissioning/pdf/20160915_01a.pdf
[viii] Japanese Subcommittee on Handling of the ALPS Treated Water. (2020, February). The Subcommittee on Handling of the ALPS Treated Water Report. Japanese Nuclear Accident Response Office, Agency for Natural Resources and Energy. https://www.meti.go.jp/english/earthquake/nuclear/decommissioning/pdf/20200210_alps.pdf
[ix] Former Tepco executives found not guilty of criminal negligence in Fukushima nuclear disaster. (2019, September 19). The Japan Times. https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2019/09/19/national/crime-legal/tepco-trio-face-tokyo-court-ruling-criminal-case-stemming-fukushima-nuclear-disaster/
[x] Tepco admits not repairing Fukushima No. 1 seismometers that broke last year. (2021, February 23). The Japan Times. https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2021/02/23/national/tepco-seismometers-fukushima/
[xi] Fackler, M. (2012, October 12). Tepco Admits Inadequate Precautions at Nuclear Plant. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/13/world/asia/tepco-admits-failure-in-acknowledging-risks-at-nuclear-plant.html
[xii] Yoshida, R. (2016, February 24). Tepco admits it should have declared meltdowns at Fukushima plant much earlier. The Japan Times. https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2016/02/24/national/tepco-admits-initial-assessments-fukushima-meltdowns-wrong/
[xiii] Ibid. (Burnie, S. 2020)

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