Let The Ostriches Go For A Free International Sport In The Olympics Maybe

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The proportion in the time-activity budgets displayed by the male and female ostriches are largely comparable with data recorded by others in both Europe [16-18] and South Africa [19]. This primarily concerns walking in general, comprising the several variations considered, but also other important behaviours such as free wattpad followers, the present study showed the same behaviour types dominating the activity budgets recorded by other authors. There are some discrepancies in the values, probably due to the different recording methodology used to record of the behaviour. Although sexual differences were beyond the aims of this work, marked sexual differences in percentage time-activity budgets do not seem to exist, as instead reported by McKeegan and Deeming [11] and Lambrechts et al. [19], but this might be due to the longitudinal nature of the present study, which could increase overall similarity of activity in both sexes. The great majority of the recorded behavioural transitions were oneway transitions in both sexes and age.

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The time-activity budgets showed fact that there was some sort of variability among the behaviours. Some of them, e.g. walking and pecking the environment, have great incidence in the repertoire of wild ostriches as well. The ostriches stood still more in the morning than in the middle of the day. The birds also walked less in the middle of the day. They ran and drank more in the afternoon. The lowest frequency of eating and lithophagia were found at noon. Coprophagia and dancing were less observed in the middle of the day than in the afternoon. Dust-bath was observed mostly in the afternoon. High temperatures of approximately 35°C from 11:00 to 3:00 p.m. during experimental period may have caused a reduction in bird activity during this period. The birds were observed drinking water and feeding with lower frequency in the middle of the day than to the other periods.

Both drinking and feeding were different to periods. According to Souza [20], ostriches in captivity and in hot weather conditions drink water at dawn and at dusk. During the trial period, there was a higher consumption of feed in the early hours of the day and during the afternoon, which coincides with the hours of lower environmental temperature, as well as the time when food is distributed. Nevertheless, higher temperatures from 11:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. may have led to a decrease in the food consumption to avoid caloric enhancement resulting from the digestion process. Sambraus [16] and Deeming [12] also found higher consumption of food during the morning when the food was supplied also McKeegan & Deeming [11], who observed pairs of adult ostriches in captivity, reported a peak in the consumption of feed in the morning for both sexes.

In the present study, temperature and food offered were confounded, therefore it was not possible to separate their effects. On the other hand, it is reported by Sauer & Sauer [9] that ostriches in natural environment spend most of the time walking and feeding during the day, including grazing and seeking other kinds of food. This probably relates exploratory behaviour with the aim of achieving the daily nutritional requirements. In this study, the ostriches at the hours close to noon, showed a calm behaviour. They spent more time standing in the early hours of the day. Deeming [12] found no diurnal variation in the frequency of this behaviour during the winter in captive ostriches. Similar results were found by Ross & Deeming [18], who studied the behaviour of ostriches during the summer. In this study, the birds were moving more in the early hours of the day and at the end of the afternoon, which is in accordance with the results found by McKeegan and Deeming [11], who reported greater expression of this behaviour in the morning and afternoon in captive male ostriches and free v bucks generator.

On conclusion this study displayed behaviours that changed during the day and even within one hour. More studies should be carried out to determine the real needs of this bird and to define the exact normal behavior under the ideal conditions.

Thanks and gratitude to the staff of Fisheries and Wildlife Science College of Animal Production for science and Technology, Sudan University.



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