Save Indian Mother Tongues From Hindi Hegemony By Constitutional Amendments
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India, that is Bharat, is a federation of different linguistic provinces formed after martyrdom of many people from various states; and the union govt is entrusted the responsibility of maintaining that structure. In april 2017 many recommendations (violating the spirit of Official Language Resolution 1968) of latest ninth official language committee- 2012 report were accepted by Honourable President of India. One of the most oppressive recommendation of this committee is compulsory study of hindi language from class one to ten through out india suppressing linguistic rights of non-hindi citizens of india. Basically these recommendations are against the spirit of our constitution article no 344(3), wherein constitution makes it mandatory to protect due rights of non-hindi indian citizens while drafting the recommendations. An article; Across the aisle: Do not stir up a hornets’ nest, written by the chairman of this committee, Mr Chidambaram in Indian Express on 30-4-2017 narrates the immoral, unconstitutional structure/working of that committee.
Not only union govt, but some universities also started this practice of hindi imposition. From loksabha U.Q.N. 3186-5.12.2016, it is clear that union govt deliberately kept mum on this Compulsory test in Hindi (CTH) order by Dehli University for non-hindi students or those not studied hindi up to class VIII. So if an institute can ask for compulsory hindi, why not all non-hindi states should make their language compulsory to all non-native people?
In 1968 as a policy decision Three Language Formula,TLF was accepted by central govt in consultation with all state govts. But since from the inception of this TLF, no hindi state adapted any of the non-hindi languages of india in their curriculum which was mandatory for them in principle. Many non-hindi states accepted hindi as third language but all hindi states choose to teach Sanskrit neglecting all other indian languages and violating the TLF principle. Sanskrit being a Mother to many indian languages, was not considered to be taught as third language when TLF was accepted in 1968. But central govt also tries to protect hindi states on this issue which we can understand if we compare questions (3338-21.12.2004; 3790-5.8.2014; 3981-17.12.2014) in loksabha. There is a clear cut subtle shift in govt policy by accepting Sanskrit as modern indian language which gives hindi states a reason not to teach any other indian language. It’s just a breach of trust from all hindi states including central govt which all non-hindi states suffered since from the start of TLF policy. This breach of trust by all hindi states was accepted by govt in Loksabha while answering a question (Q. no 3790 Dt. 5-8-2014) and also clearly mentioned in latest report(NEP-2016) National Education Policy 2016 (Under section 6.13; language policy).
As per loksabha U.Q.N.-3790-5.8.2014, and (NEP-2016); hindi is not taught in tamilnadu, Tripura and pudicherry as per TLF; then why other non-hindi states should accept TLF?
When hindi is not a national language, (Loksabha - UQ NO - 6184 - 04.05.2010) medium of instruction is English, then why hindi is compulsory in CBSE or ICSE? Pro hindi people argue that we need a national link language, agreed; but when English is taught right from the class one, why we need another link language as hindi. Either we should study English or hindi, if we need common link language and this is what exactly recommended in latest NEP-2016, Refer Article 6.13.14. And most imp we don’t need a learning of language for ten years which is supposed to be used for simple communication. Successive union Govts and CBSE / ICSE both are misleading people since from many decades. Refer CBSE syllabus of last many years & Loksabha Q.N. (4620-23.4.2002; 3338-21.12.2004; 649-27.2.2013; 3981-17.12.14). On one side govt says hindi is compulsory in cbse/icse and on the other side it states that education is a part of concurrent list giving freedom to states to accept or reject TLF. And the recent policy decision by UP govt to teach English from class I instead of class V weaken the case of a myth; hindi as a national link language. It’s hypocrisy on the part of govt to impose hindi, rather a clever move to slowly outsmart linguistic culture, identity, languages of various states for political gains.
Union govt enforce compulsory hindi learning through CBSE in non-hindi states under the garb of three language formula. CBSE is a central govt institution but funds given to cbse is a part of central taxes which are collected from all indian states including non-hindi states. These taxes are utilized to promote hindi only which is a regional language like all other regional languages. Then why non-hindi states should allow central govt to utilise taxes to promote hindi only in their states under the garb of CBSE? What all non-hindi state students will achieve by learning hindi for ten years? Will they get employment opportunities in non-hindi state govts ; do hindi have global gateway for overseas employment ; hindi being a just 400 years old language there is no rich history of arts, literature, poetry, sculpture, etc. in that. Barring a few specialized central govt jobs, no opportunities are there any where after studying hindi for ten years. Then why non-hindi states should accept such futile language hegemony? Better shift to two language system; English and state language only. Give freedom to school management, institutions for other language teaching if some linguistic group ask for other languages.
As per history muslim foreign invaders came to india in twelfth century and with them came the Persian-Arabic language, ancestral genes of modern hindi language. In real sense hindi is not purely indian language. It is a language formed by intermingling of languages present at that time like avadhi, brajbhasha in north india with Persian dialects. This language was called first khariboli, hindusthani and when british conquered india it was the de facto communication language with urdu (indian version of Persian language) in most part of north india in different forms. Urdu is written in different script and hindi is written in devnagari script used for writing Sanskrit, but both have common gene of Persian-Arabic language. Present day modern hindi is a language heavily influenced by urdu language along with Sanskrit written in devnagari script. In short, hindi a predator, who swallowed languages like avadhi, brajbahsha, magadhi etc. is also somewhat foreign language in terms of pure indian origin. So when people say that non-hindi citizens prefer English over hindi, a native language, it’s a half-truth rather a deliberate false propaganda. English obsession often criticised as colonial hangover should be refuted by calling hindi chauvinism as foreign invaders bullish hangover.
We will save millions of rupees by accepting two language formula. Practically, since from the independence we are investing money on two link languages under TLF, English and hindi; as students study both of them from the beginning. If we go by two language formula i.e. English & state language; huge funds will be saved which can be used to invest in better subjects like computer, AI etc. But it seems that there is a hidden agenda in TLF to create employment opportunities for hindi citizens all over India. To have a common communication language we don’t need study of a language for 10 years. Practically all non-hindi state students bear the additional burden of third language as state language, whereas in practice hindi state students go by two language formula.
So my humble request to amend the constitution to protect indian mother tongues from HINDI HEGEMONY imposed by successive union govts since from the independence.
Desired Constitutional Amendments:-
Article 1(1) - India, that is Bharat, shall be a Union of Linguistic States formed on one language one state basis, as mentioned in schedule one & eight of the constitution.
Article (15) - Add word "language" here along with religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth; for Prohibition of discrimination.
21B (1) The States shall provide compulsory education of regional or provincial languages as first language mentioned in the 8th schedule by law, from nursery to 10 classes. Minority linguistic institutions may impart education in their minority language including one compulsory subject as state language (Usha mehata ver Maharashtra govt case May 2004; Supreme Court ordered that minority institution must teach state language)
Eighth Schedule: - A-(1) Andra Pradesh- Telugu – (2) Assam – Assami (3) Bihar – Hindi (4) Chhattisgarh – Hindi (5) Goa – Konkani
And so in this manner all states with their languages should be listed to reinforce one language one state concept. (Many people lay down their lives for the cause of linguistic state based on languages. This is a tribute to their supreme sacrifices for linguistic states.)
Either we should repeal Part XVII of our constitution or have following Amendments in official language PART XVII of the constitution.
ALL languages mentioned in the eighth schedule under one language one state scheme, shall be called as national, official or heritage languages having equal rights, equal status.
Within a particular state, communication and administrative language shall be particular state language only. State may offer other languages as link or communication languages. For convenience of non-native speakers English shall work as link language.
The official administrative language of the Union government for all non-hindi states shall be English. All official correspondence between union and non-hindi states shall be in English only.
Every state shall have only one language as official or supreme language. All other languages approved by state assembly shall have status of communication or link languages.
Under any circumstances there shall be no other official or supreme language in any state. Union govt, Parliament or president shall not have any constitutional power to bestow official status to any language in any state. (Two official or supreme languages will be an insult to all indian citizens who lay down their lives for the sole cause of linguistic states.)
All indian citizen must pass language tests of other states if they move out of their respective states for earning livelihood.
(a) Citizens going to other states for doing business or private jobs must pass basic - language communication test (LCT) within a stipulated period of one year.
(b) Citizens going to other states for state or central govt jobs, must pass -language proficiency test (LPT), within a period of three years.
At the time of constitution formation “Education" was listed in state list for execution. But few decades back it was shifted to Concurrent union-State list giving final authority to union govt. Now education should be shifted to state list again and full authority should be given to states in linguistic education matter.
Repeal official languages act 1963 completely as this gives biased importance to hindi undermining the importance of other ancient languages of india.
Rename and restructure CBSE as “Indian Board of Secondary Education” (IBSE) and recruit board members from non-hindi speaking states to have equal rights in forming the language policies. Education must have two language formula only in all government or private boards in india; Either English or hindi and particular state language.
To popularise all indian languages we should have a national language portal to teach all languages. Any one can easily learn language basics like read write and speak within one year. So there is no need to have thousands of hindi teachers for generations to teach so called communication language. We do have institutes like CIIL -Central Institute of Indian Languages; which impart online education of various indian languages. This infrastructure can be converted in a national language portal by which we will save billions of rupees in coming years.
When compulsory hindi teaching will be abolished from india, many may complain of unemployment created by this step. To rectify this constitutional blunder; under teachers rehabilitation program, absorb maximum teachers for teaching native state languages as most hindi teachers are born native speakers of the states and the rest can be absorbed to handle digital portals of various languages.
My humble request to all concerned authorities on behalf of millions of Indian citizens to ponder upon this and do justice to our great ancient linguistic culture.
Sign and share this petition with everyone you know to save our mother tongues from hindi hegemony. I wish millions of mother tongue lovers must sign this petition to conserve the ancient indian linguistic heritage. This is a moment of NOW OR NEVER; So awake, arise and untidily ask the authorities for the desired changes.
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