- congress, the American people
Enact Election Reform
May 28, 2013, 5:00 PM Eastern Time
A proposed ELECTION REFORM AMENDMENT
to the Constitution of the United States:
1) No person who is a spouse, former spouse, child, parent
or sibling of any person who has held an elective office
of trust under the jurisdiction of the United States
shall be eligible to be elected to or appointed to hold
that same office; or to serve in any such capacity in
such office except in assistance with transition work
on a temporary basis not exceeding thirty days after
their kin shall have left office.
2) No person holding any municipal, county-level,
State or Federal prosecutorial office of
trust under the jurisdiction of the United States, or
holding any elective or appointed judicial position at any
level of State government, shall be eligible to be
elected or appointed to the same office, or any other office
until eighteen months have elapsed during which the
same person shall not have served in any public office.
3) No person who cannot be lawfully qualified to be President
of the United States shall be appointed to or confirmed
to hold any Cabinet-level office of public trust .
4) The State of New Hampshire shall host the first
Presidential primaries in the United States henceforth
at least four days prior to any other primary election
to be held in any State or Territory in the same year.
This shall hold true for all political parties as a necessary
precondition of fielding a slate of electors.
Congress shall determine the subsequent order of
Presidential primaries in any given year, by a schedule
to be publicly announced by January 20 of every Presidential
election year; in the event Congress does not announce a
schedule by noon of any such January 20, the Chief Justice
of the United States shall provide the schedule by the
close of business on the same date.
The New Hampshire primary election
shall be held between January 25 and February 5 of any such year.
No more than two States shall have primary elections
on the same date; and at least three days but not more
than five days shall transpire between consecutive primaries.
The Presidential primary of the largest State shall not result in a
monolith of delegates committed to only one Presidential candidate.
Each State and Territory shall determine its own rules and procedures
for hosting Presidential primary elections, subject to this Constitution
and in accordance with the scheduling imposed by Congress
or by the Chief Justice of the United States.
5) No incumbent President, having succeeded to office during the
term of the preceding President for any reason, shall be eligible
to run for office until the election of another President shall have
6) In the event that no candidate for President wins more than
49.5% of the popular votes cast and counted within 48 hours of
the closing of the polls throughout the United States for the
general election in November, the candidates winning the third,
fourth and fifth highest numbers of votes may declare that their votes
are donated to one of the candidates receiving the two highest
numbers of votes, within twenty days. In so doing, there may be
agreements made between the candidates by contract, in order
to create a valid result which most reasonably reflects the will of the
popular vote. During this process of agreement, the victorious
candidate who qualifies to be elected by the Electoral College
may appoint opposing candidates to positions within the
new Administration. If no agreement as described in this
Section shall have been worked out by the time the Electoral
College shall have convened to elect the President, then the
Electoral College shall have power to assign the popular votes won by all other
Presidential candidates to one or both of the two candidates who have received
the two highest numbers of votes, in a way which most reasonably
reflects the will and construable expression of the popular vote,
and which provides a coherent and most incontestable pattern of victory
for one or the other two major candidates.
NOTE: If this Amendment had been in effect since 1824, here is
the result which would have been obtained:
(These results amount to an alternative "remake history" of the USA!)
In 1824, John Quincy Adams was elected President.
By this Amendment, if it had been in effect at that time,
HENRY CLAY would have been elected President for
one term - becoming President at the age of 46.
From 1828 to 1856, all elections would have turned
out the same.
In 1860, Lincoln would not have been elected.
Our 16th President would have been Stephen Douglas,
because both Breckinridge and Bell would have donated
their votes to Douglas. Since Douglas died in June
of 1861, our 17th President would have been named
Johnson - but a different individual -
Herschel Vespasian Johnson, of Georgia.
His Presidency would have galvanized the newly formed
Republican Party into hardening opposition; therefore....
Lincoln would have been elected President in 1864, and
the Civil War would have broken out in 1865 instead of 1861
(as it was the election of Lincoln that sparked it)
but the Civil War, according to this "remake history" might have
been shorter - perhaps only 18 months; because by
1864, more States would have abolished slavery on
their own. Only the Deep South would have seceded.
Virginia would likely have stayed in the Union, which in
itself would have been a major factor in shortening
the "inevitable" war. Also, new technology may have
been developed which might have economically marginalized
slavery - just as the invention of the cotton gin did
Chances are Lincoln would have lived on - and might have
become our first divorced President, remarrying after
leaving the White House or during his last days in it.
In 1868, William Henry Seward would have been elected
President; most likely with a running mate from the South
for the sake of national reconciliation. The most likely
Vice Presidential candidate would have been the distinguished
Admiral David Glasgow Farragut, of Tennessee. However
Farragut died in 1870, and President Seward would have
had to choose a replacement Vice President - or a prominent
member of Congress may have been chosen.
Thus Andrew Johnson - by a differing twist of events -
could have become President for about six months after the
death of Seward, in 1872, according to this "remake history"
of the USA.
The election of 1872 would most likely have taken place
in the House of Representatives, due to the death of
Horace Greeley and Seward. The likely choice may well
have been William Sprague in such an event.
In 1876, Rutherford B. Hayes would most likely have been
elected President, but in a different way - and possibly with
a majority of popular votes. Samuel Tilden won a majority
of votes cast in 1876 due to stuffing of ballot boxes in the
states of the Deep South with Democratic votes. The defeat
of Tilden is not a valid argument against the Electoral College -
in fact, the victory of Hayes is an argument in favor of
the Electoral College which vindicates it. Tilden accepted
his defeat with good grace and good humor.
1880 would have seen the election of a famous individual who
in fact lost his life on the orders of President Grant - and
since Grant would not have been elected under this system, this
famous individual would have lived on to become President -
and his name is General George Armstrong Custer.
James G. Blaine would most likely have won the election
of 1884, as the 24th President of the United States.
Grover Cleveland would have won the election of 1888, but
with a brokered deal which would have led to Anson Streeter
becoming his Vice President.
The elections of 1892 would have seen the re-election of
Cleveland, but with a different Vice-President in another
brokered deal - with James B. Weaver as the new
The elections of 1896 and 1900 would have turned out the same.
In 1904, Teddy Roosevelt would have been ineligible
to run for President, by the terms of this Amendment.
The likely Republican candidate for President - and likely
victor - would have been Arthur MacArthur, the father of
General Douglas MacArthur, and himself a Teddy Roosevelt
look-alike in many photographs.
In 1908, William Howard Taft could have and probably
would have been elected to his only term as President.
1912 would have turned out much differently.
Taft, the incumbent President who placed third in the popular
vote - and failed to win a majority of votes in any State -
would have given his votes to Teddy Roosevelt - resulting in
the Bull Moose Party taking control in the White House.
The historic significance of this possibility would have been
Teddy Roosevelt, as the 31st President, would not have
been advised by Colonel House; and would not have gotten
the United States involved in World War One. As a result,
Germany would have preserved its victory over Russia on the
Eastern front, and would most likely have not only been able
to negotiate a truce with France and Britain; but would not
have lost Micronesia (if indeed the United States hadn't failed
to obtain it in 1898) to Japan. Without the Versailles Treaty,
German payment of war reparations, and the expansion of the
Japanese Empire to include Micronesia, the conditions which
produced the rise of Hitler in Europe, and the later attack on
Pearl Harbor, would not have existed - hence if there were
wars in Europe, Asia or the Pacific during the time from
1939 to 1945, these wars would have been much less violent
and much less extensive.
In 1916, Teddy Roosevelt would have been re-elected to a second
term in his own right, with General Leonard Wood as his likely
running mate. There never would have been a President
Woodrow Wilson - but Leonard Wood would have become President
upon the death of Roosevelt, who died in 1919.
The election of 1920 would have turned out the same, and Harding
would have been succeeded by Coolidge, who would have been
unable to succeed himself. This would open the way for the election
of Charles Gates Dawes as President, in 1924. Thus the 35th
President of the United States would have been Dawes, not
The election of 1928 would have turned out with or without this
proposed Amendment to witness the victory of Herbert Clark Hoover.
The elections of 1932 and 1936 would have seen a victory by
Franklin Delano Roosevelt; but 1940 may have been a Republican
victory with Wendell Willkie moving into the White House,
followed by Arthur Herbert Vandenberg, who would most likely
have been Willkie's Vice President, succeeding to the Presidency
upon the untimely death of Willkie.
Certainly there would have been war in Asia at this time, and
possibly in Europe as well - but there is a chance that such a
war would not have involved the United States as heavily as
in fact happened, in this alternative scenario.
Edward Reilly Stettinius, Jr. would have been most likely to be
elected President in 1944 - and he would have been the youngest
person elected President up to that time.
Dwight Eisenhower would have been elected President four
years earlier - in 1948, for two successive terms. This would
rule out a war in Korea in this alternative scenario.
Lyndon Baines Johnson would have been elected President
in 1956, for one term. The recession would have made
Johnson a one-term President.
John Fitzgerald Kennedy would have won the Democratic
nomination in 1960, to be elected with Vice Presidential
candiate William Stuart Symington, who would have become
President on November 22, 1963. Symington would
have been unable to run for President in 1964. Kennedy,
at age 43, would have been elected the 43rd President.
Stuart Symington would have become the 44th.
Of course, Bobby Kennedy would not have run for
President in 1968 - being ineligible under this proposal.
He would have been a senior Senator from New York,
possibly to this day.
Richard Nixon, together with running mate Barry
Goldwater, would have been elected in 1964 as the
45th President of the United States, and subsequently
re-elected in 1968. The alternative scenario rules out
a Vietnam War involvement for the United States
because Johnson would not have been President
during the mid-1960s. Also ruled out are the urban
riots of the 1960s.
The 1972 election would have given us a fantastic President:
Edmund Muskie. Of course, he would have
been a one-term President due to economic factors.
The 1976 election may well have produced a
President Jimmy Carter for one term, in the alternative
In 1980 and 1984, President Ronald Wilson Reagan
would have been elected.
In 1988 and 1992, President Bush (Sr.) would have
been elected to office, even over the challenge of
H. Ross Perot. In fact, Perot would have donated
his votes to Bush; who would have become the
In 1996, Bob Dole would have been elected President,
for a single term.
In 2000, the victor would have been John McCain,
who would have served as the 52nd President.
This would have precluded the 2001 attacks on the
United States, since McCain's administration would
not have been taken over by neocons. Of course,
it is also likely that even if the United States had been
attacked in exactly the same manner during a
McCain administration, that McCain would have
responded with the most powerful weapons in the
American arsenal - making the war very short and
to the point.
Of course, if George Bush Jr. had been somehow
eligible, and Gore had run against Bush Jr. in 2000,
Gore, not Bush, would have been declared the
winner, because Ralph Nader would have donated
his votes to Gore, thus giving Gore a majority in
both the popular vote and the Electoral College.
This factor alone justifies the ratification of this
Amendment, because the 2000 election was one
of the most unfair, in both its outcome and its
Bill Clinton would have been elected President in 2004,
if at all. Since the course of history would have been so
different if this Amendment had been in place since
1824, it is very possible that names not known to the
public would have had a chance to be listed in the
White House roster - especially in the absence of the
royalist factor which produced a President Bush Jr. -
something that would have been prohibited by this
Amendment. It is likely that Bill Clinton would not
have been beset with the "draft dodger" political baggage
had this Amendment been in place - because Lyndon
Johnson would not have been able to transform the
Vietnam war from a local conflict into an international one.
Furthermore, it is also likely that Bill Clinton's marriage
would have collapsed and he would have subsequently
remarried - or the marriage would have resolved its rocky
terrain and moved on -making Bill Clinton's involvement
with "other women" moot by 2004, and not a factor in
Bill Clinton, if elected in 2004, would have been a one-term
President; and Al Gore would most likely have been the
Vice President during Clinton's single term in office. Of course
Hillary Clinton would have been ineligible to run for President
with this proposed Amendment in place.
The victor of the 2008 Presidential election would have been,
of course, Ron Paul - because the election would have been
fair insofar as the Republican nomination aspect of it.
Paul may have been elected the 54th President of the
It is possible that the victor of the 2012 election would have
been Barack Obama. But it is impossible that the direction
the Obama Administration would have taken would have
been influenced by inherited baggage from the Bush Jr.
administration - because there would have been no
possibility that George Bush Jr. would have ever become
President. It is also possible that Al Gore would have
been elected President in 2012. Of course, it is also
possible that the person elected President in 2012
would have been...
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