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“In order to escape accountability for his crimes, the perpetrator does everything in his power to promote forgetting. If secrecy fails, the perpetrator attacks the credibility of his victim. If he cannot silence her absolutely, he tries to make sure no one listens.”
― Judith Lewis Herman, Trauma and Recovery
“over and over victims are blamed for their assaults. and when we imply that victims bring on their own fates - whether to make ourselves feel more efficacious or to make the world seem just - we prevent ourselves from taking the necessary precautions to protect ourselves. Why take precautions? We deny the trauma could easily have happened to us. And we also hurt the people already traumatized. Victims are often already full of self-doubt, and we make recovery harder by laying inspectors blame on them.”
― Anna C. Salter, Predators: Pedophiles, Rapists, And Other Sex Offenders
“From New Delhi to New York, from Durban to Rio; women and
girls are been hunted down by rapists, abused by pedophiles and
emotionally decapitated by a society that is becoming increasingly
hostile to the womenfolk”
― Oche Otorkpa
"The greatest and oldest male hate crime on earth is FGM. FGM is always connected with sex slavery, child marriage, child rape, sexual torture, forced underaged and often deadly childbirths. The only reason for it is femicide, sexual mutilation, tortur and murder, sex slavery and heinous child rape with underaged child brides. It's the oldest and greatest witch hunt on this planet with deadly consequences. The victims are female babies, childs, underaged girls and young women. Don't call it custom, call it hate crime and sexual murder and end it this crime forever!"
“In the nineteenth century, girls who learned to develop orgasmic capacity by masturbation were regarded as medical problems. Often they were 'treated' or 'corrected' by amputation or cautery of the clitoris or 'miniature chastity belts,' sewing the vaginal lips together to put the clitoris out of reach, and even castration by surgical removal of the ovaries. But there are no references in the medical literature to the surgical removal of testicles or amputation of the penis to stop masturbation in boys.
In the United States, the last recorded clitoridectomy for curing masturbation was performed in 1948-- on a five-year-old girl.”
― Eve Ensler, The Vagina Monologues
“Here the oppression of women is very subtle. If we take female circumcision, the excision of the clitoris, it is done physically in Egypt. But here it is done psychologically and by education. So even if women have the clitoris, the clitoris was banned; it was removed by Freudian theory and by the mainstream culture.”
“Men impose deception on women and punish them for being deceived, force them down to the lowest level and punish them for falling so low, bind them in marriage and then chastise them with menial service for life, or insults, or blows.”
“They said, 'You are a savage and dangerous woman.' I am speaking the truth. And the truth is savage and dangerous.”
“Yet not for a single moment did I have any doubts about my own integrity and honor as a woman. I knew that my profession had been invented by men, and that men were in control of both our worlds, the one on earth, and the one in heaven. That men force women to sell their bodies at a price, and that the lowest paid body is that of a wife. All women are prostitutes of one kind or another.”
-Nawal El Saadawi
There are many crimes against women, girls and female childs: Domestic and sexual violence, street harassment, workplace harassment, catcalling, Eve teasing, tarrarush gamea, rape culture, mass and gang rapes, war rapes, child rapes, marital rapes, dowry murder, forced and child marriages, religous crimes, honour killings, FGM, sex slavery, women, girls and child trafficking, forced prostitution, rape pornography, online harassment, sadistic stalking, domestic and sexual murder, acid attacks, femicide, female infanticide, daily hate speech and sexism, sadistic and forced sexual practices, lack of freedom, education and human rights, forced dress codes like chador and burqa, victim blaming of assault, stalking, bullying and rape victims,witch hunts, widow murders, executions like stoning for rape and assault victims, imprisonment and punishment of female victims..
Violence against women, girls and female childs - particularly intimate partner violence and sexual violence - are major public health problems and violations of women's human rights and childrens rights..
Recent global prevalence figures indicate that about 1 in 3 (35%) of women worldwide have experienced either physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence or non-partner sexual violence in their lifetime.
Most of this violence is intimate partner violence. Worldwide, almost one third (30%) of women who have been in a relationship report that they have experienced some form of physical and/or sexual violence by their intimate partner.
Globally, as many as 38% of murders of women are committed by an intimate partner.
Violence can negatively affect women’s physical, mental, sexual and reproductive health, and may increase vulnerability to HIV.
Factors associated with increased risk of perpetration of violence include low education, child maltreatment or exposure to violence in the family, harmful use of alcohol, attitudes accepting of violence and gender inequality.
Factors associated with increased risk of experiencing intimate partner and sexual violence include low education, exposure to violence between parents, abuse during childhood, attitudes accepting violence and gender inequality.
There is evidence from high-income settings that school-based programmes may be effective in preventing relationship violence (or dating violence) among young people.
In low-income settings, primary prevention strategies, such as microfinance combined with gender equality training and community-based initiatives that address gender inequality and relationship skills, hold promise.
Situations of conflict, post conflict and displacement may exacerbate existing violence, such as by intimate partners, and present additional forms of violence against women.
Global violence uniquely affects the girl child. Although international legal instruments have been in place for decades to protect the girl child, thousands of brutal acts of violence and neglect specifically targeting the girl child can be observed around the world on a daily basis. For centuries, girls who have barely attained adolescence have been forced into marriage, often with men many years their senior. As a minor, a girl child cannot legally give her consent to enter into such a partnership. They have suffered in female genital mutilation rituals. They are traded, bought, and sold across national borders as commodities to be put to use as prostitutes or slaves, or merely to be sold again at a profit. Many girls are even victimized before birth, as technology and greater access to medicine have given rise to prenatal sex selection and selection abortion based on sex. Girls continue to face the threat of sexual harassment and abuse in workplaces and schools. Their lives may be taken for the “honor” of their families for speaking to strangers or committing other minor transgressions. Violence against the girl child has become a powerful and all-too-common tactic in times of war and humanitarian disaster.
Violence against the girl child is perpetrated on every continent, wielded by every social and economic class, and sanctioned to varying degrees by every form of government, every major religion, and every kind of communal or familial structure.
7 appalling facts that prove we need gender equality now!
Women and girls deserve to live in a better world.
The symptoms may vary depending where you live, but gender inequality is a truly global concern. From a studio in Hollywood to the Houses of Parliament or a classroom in Tanzania, women and girls are still fighting for equal rights and the chance to determine the shape of their future.
The issues that disadvantage women and girls are wide-ranging but fundamentally connected. Denied equality in pursuing their careers, excercising personal freedoms or even in something as fundamental as their right to learn, here are 7 facts that prove girls and women everywhere deserve to live in a better world than exists today.
1) In 2015 there were only 21 female heads of state in the entire world .
Yes, only 21. That's one for each century.
Although women make up 49.6% of the world’s population, only 11 women served as heads of state in 2015, whilst 10 served as heads of government. 196 world leaders signed the Global Goals - but can we really create a fairer world if only a tenth of these are women?
This inequality trickles down the political ladder. Worldwide, only 22% of parliamentarians are female. On a positive note, the 2015 general election in the UK saw a surge in the number of female MPs, which reached 29% - but this record high is still far too low. When the institutions that create our laws still look like a man’s world, the next fact is no surprise:
2) Over 150 countries have at least one actively sexist law
From “legitimate” rape in India to unfair inheritance laws in the UK, the majority of countries still harbour laws that make life more difficult – or more dangerous – for women and girls.
Many of these laws reinforce the notion that a woman exists as the property of a man. In Yemen, a married woman cannot leave her house without her husband’s permission, whilst in Cameroon, a husband can prevent his wife from taking a job if he does not approve of it. Denying a woman equality before the law or agency over her own decisions, these countries effectively institutionalise inequality.
3) Each minute, 28 girls are married before they are ready
No 3-year-old is ready for the institution of marriage, but for a young Ethiopian girl called Bayush, the prospect of a wedding came far too early. When she was just three years old, her parents started to arrange for her to marry a man many years her senior. The sight of a young European or American girl in a veil automatically triggers cries of outrage in a viewer – it’s a rare, shocking spectacle that is visibly unjust. But the truth is, somewhere in the world a child marriage happens every minute, which runs up a total of 15 million early marriages every year. Whilst parents choose to send their sons to the classroom, their daughters are sent down the proverbial aisle, in the hope it will secure her future and reduce the financial strain on their lives. In reality, once she is married, a girl often leaves school and often lacks the skills to lift her family out of poverty.
4) 1 in 3 women have experienced physical or sexual violence at some point in their lifetime
According to UN estimates, up to 35% of women alive today have experienced sexual or physical violence. The most common form of gender-based violence is committed by an intimate partner. The prevalence of violence against women across the world means that women aged 15-44 are more at risk from rape and domestic violence than from cancer, motor accidents, war and malaria.
5) In most countries, women only earn between 60 and 75% of men’s wages - for the same work
The gender pay gap knows no borders, so whether you’re a farmer in Kenya or an actress in Hollywood, it’s likely you’ll only be paid two-thirds as much as your male counterpart. In a powerful open letter, actress Jennifer Lawrence opened up about why – despite her privilege – being paid far less than her male co-stars is not simply a ‘first world problem.’ Across industries and cultures alike, the belief that women should expect less than men persists.
Nowhere is this more apparent than when it comes to a girl’s education.
6) There are approximately 781 million illiterate adults worldwide – two-thirds of whom are women
Too many people around the world never learn how to read or write. This is a tragedy for both men and women, but the imbalance reflects a deep structural inequality rooted in one clear cause: a woman is twice more likely to be illiterate than a man because she is twice as likely to miss out on education completely.
7) 63 million girls still need to go to school
Around the world, 63 million girls are currently out of school – that is almost the same size as the entire population of the UK. Even if a girl does make it to primary school, the drop-out rate before she reaches secondary school is steep. The majority of girls in Sub-Saharan Africa do not complete their secondary education. The impact this has on their lives can be devastating. Girls who do not complete school are not only more likely to live in extreme poverty, they also miss out on vital knowledge that affects all areas of life - from how to protect their sexual health to how to defend their own human rights. For example, one study found that non-literate women were four times more likely to believe HIV could not be prevented. Without an education, any girl would struggle to protect herself and fully take control of her future.
But, if a girl completes both primary and secondary school she will marry later, have children later, raise healthier children, and earn more as an adult. So why are so many girls denied their right to learn?
All these facts boil down to a single cause - gender inequality. While there are only seven listed, women and girls face countless obstacles on a daily basis simply because they were born female. In September 2015, the world agreed to 17 Global Goals to build a sustainable, more equal world, including a goal to ensure a quality education for all. Almost a year on, we still lack a concrete action plan to realise this ambition.
Global inequality will not end until universal education becomes a reality. So we're calling on global citizens, world leaders, musicians, activists - everyone one who believes in equality - to join the fight for every gilrl's right to learn. It's time to break the barriers to girls' education.
One great hate crime: sadistic pornography and sexual exploitation:
That's patriarchy: how female sexual liberation led to male sexual entitlement !
Pornography tells the truth about men and heinous lies about women!
It’s understandable that intergenerational battles over feminism come down to the meaning of consent!
It was the journalist Julia Baird who wrote on Twitter: “YOUNG FEMINISTS: What do you think older feminists don’t understand or get exactly right, or just might miss about #metoo, if anything? Am curious to hear.”
Baird’s question appears in the context of high-profile disagreements about #MeToo between some young and older feminists. A few weeks ago, French actor Catherine Deneuve and 100 co-signatories of a letter claimed #MeToo was fostering a “new Puritanism” – a position from which she has since somewhat backed away. Since then, a widely-reported interview with Germaine Greer has appeared, in which the Australian feminist accused the #MeToo movement of “whingeing”.
There is – of course, and as always – more nuance to Greer’s position than her gruff soundbites suggest. Greer’s analysis remains one of unequal power between the genders and the patriarchal structure and domination of power systems such as the law. In the context where “powerful men ... are already briefing their lawyers”, her stated fear is that “the women who have given testimony now will be taken to pieces”.
Her anxiety here is not unique. But those women already feel taken to pieces also by Greer, who said: “if you spread your legs ... it’s too late now to start whingeing about that.”
Greer and the Deneuve group are #notallolderfeminists. Baird’s question, however, is a useful means to explore not only some contrast in inter-generational feminisms, but the vast experiential differences between the generations themselves.
The Deneuve/Greer analysis originates from a period in which having casual sex, multiple partners and sex outside of marriage were acts in defiance of old patriarchal taboos. We forget, in the west, just how transformative the past few decades have been.
Consider that when Deneuve appeared onscreen as the curious bourgeois sexual day-labourer in 1967’s Belle Du Jour, representations of sex itself were considered so scandalous that Britain was still operating under full theatre censorship. In Australia, sexy books like Lady Chatterley’s Lover were subject to an import ban. On American television, even married couples on TV sitcoms were depicted in separate beds.
Sexual freedom has become another realm of women’s experience for patriarchy to conquer.
The right for women to escape the passive sexual role obliged of them by culture – the imperative to do so in the cause of women’s liberation – is at the heart of Greer’s demands in her 1970 manifesto, The Female Eunuch. In the world the book depicts of the lonely housewife “staring at the back of her husband’s newspaper”, a realised female sexuality is a militant act of revolt.
The restrictions placed on female agency at the time – especially through the institution of marriage, which women entered younger and were less enfranchised to leave than now – are staggering to imagine. Only in 1965 did married women in France obtain the right to work without their husbands’ consent. In Australia, married women could not apply for passports without their husband’s approval until 1983. Britain did not make marital rape illegal until 1991.
For feminists who survived those generations, it must seem extraordinary to have battled at such risk for liberation to hear younger women discuss sexual contracts, a desire for boundaries, a wish not to be sexualised by men in their lives. Given the emergence of their generation from socially-enforced cocoons of sexual repression, where actual laws existed to culturally erase women’s sexuality, it must look like regress to older women.
But what has happened in the intervening decades is that sexual freedom has become another realm of women’s experience for patriarchy to conquer. As soon as older feminists had won sexual liberation, patriarchy reframed it as sexual availability for men. Writer David Quinn was actually having a pop at #MeToo feminism in The Times when he stumbled onto an eloquent truth: “The only sexual rule today is ‘consent’, and men have been taught that women are potentially always sexually available because that is what ‘liberation’ means.”
Where once the patriarchal structures of cultural production were censorious of women’s sexuality in film, art, literature, now the depiction of it is hypersexualised and explicit – but the structures of production remain just as patriarchal.
The flipside to the destigmatisation of sex for women has been a sense of patriarchal entitlement to sex with women, which is why the painful conversation about consent in our new era of “freedom” must be confronted. One in 10 women, as opposed to one in 70 men, report they’ve been coerced into sex, the vast majority by an intimate partner.
Those doubting the assumptions informing the delicate and dangerous reality of the new sexual era need only read the studies quoted in Lili Loofbourow’s recent chilling analysis in The Week: the price of male pleasure is indeed the value of female pain.
And ubiquitous female sexualisation has manifested a reality in which young women find themselves in unwittingly sexualised situations all the time. Young women are right to feel that destigmatised sex has enhanced their traditional patriarchal status as sex objects, not liberated them from it.
Joan Bakewell on feminism in the 1970s: ‘Might a woman read the news?’ I asked. ‘Absolutely not’
“To all the grown men out there,” CNN reporter Kaitlan Collins was obliged to instruct in the wake of another GOP sexual harassment scandal last week, “the younger women who work for you don’t want to date you; do not want to be your soul mate; do not want to go to icecream with you; do not want to be your partner.”
Is it the pervasiveness of these assumptions and the lived reality of their consequences that, perhaps, some of our feminist antecedents don’t understand? If we know the power systems that exist are gendered, unequal and unfair, it’s idealism or madness to forget that they yet dog our beds and jobs too.
They will until the systems themselves are upended and transformed. We need an army to do it. #MeToo has enabled a moment of global feminist awakening. YOUNG FEMINISTS, OLDER FEMINISTS – let’s apply our empathy and analysis to one another in both generational directions to keep moving forward.
The patriarchal backlash is already mobilising its lawyers, and defenders. The fight ahead wants unity, not a failure to either remember women’s past, or apply imagination to their present.
The oldest male hate crime: FGM connected with child marriage and forced marriage and child rape:
If we want to make progress with FGM, we need to first tackle our outdated, misogynistic views on sex!
The first UK conviction for female genital mutilation (FGM) this month was a milestone in the fight for the basic human rights of women and girls. But one of the things that stands out from the news reports of that case is how oddly furtive they were about communicating the key facts – in particular their avoidance of the C-word: clitoris.
In reporting such a prominent case, why are readers unable to be shown the correct medical terminology? Why do the media carefully avoid mentioning what occurred, using highly generalised anatomical terms before quickly moving on? If this lack of detail was to spare the victim the indignity of having such a personal matter discussed so publicly, I would have sympathy, however I do not think that this is the case here. What I think is at play, is a deep-rooted fear of the clitoris.
Let us consider if a man were to suffer a similar injury: would we shy away from using the word penis? Of course not. A quick internet search is enough to reveal a whole plethora of penis-related news stories (not to mention non-news stories). In fact, there are so many that we seem, as news consumers, to be a little bit penis obsessed. Huff Post and the Independent have gone so far as creating a “penis” news keyword tag, for all your penis news in one place. To some degree, the media has also now acknowledged the existence of the vagina, and its linguistic appearance is reasonably acceptable in polite conversation (perhaps depending on the context). So why are we so reticent about the clitoris? Why is a mention of it seemed to be deemed too sordid for BBC news?
The big difference here seems to be that while the vagina has an obvious functional utility, the clitoris exists entirely for female pleasure. It seems that the issue stems, not from the provocative nature of a word, but our continued societal taboo regarding women daring to enjoy sex. Sure, we can see depictions of women shrieking with pleasure plastered all over any porn site. But that is exactly the point. Female sexual enjoyment remains exclusively in the realm of the forbidden.
This aversion to discussing, or even acknowledging, female pleasure is instilled early. As a teenager, I remember it being commonplace for boys to laugh and joke about masturbation; if anything, it was downright encouraged. For girls meanwhile, it was impossible to admit even to your closest friends that masturbation had ever crossed your mind, except as something disgusting and shameful. We were all doing it, yet no one would dare to ever admit it and risk being branded weird and somehow dirty.
In an age in which we’re revolutionising the debate around sexual experiences and consent, why are we stagnating when it comes to the discussion of mutual enjoyment? Rebecca Kukla, a philosophy professor specialising in practical ethics at Georgetown University, has written about the problems of a linguistic framework built around consent, with its implication that women are passive recipients of an act. Sex is framed as something a man asks for, which a woman may either consent to or decline, rather than an experience of mutual participation, agency and pleasure. This is not to say that consent is not important; on the contrary, it is essential. But to reduce our discussions of sex to this kind of dichotomy is to fundamentally misrepresent what is an active and reciprocal enjoyment.
We must only look at a 3D model of a clitoris – and the start of a sexual revolution
It’s time that we grow up and get over our fear of the C-word. Even more than this, we need to cease viewing female enjoyment of sex as sordid and instead catapult it into the mainstream. Yes, a woman has a clitoris! Being able, at the very least, to talk about clinical aspects of female anatomy when reporting factual news is vital to accepting female bodies in their entirety. We must be able to mention a clitoris without feeling uncomfortable, without feeling like we’ve crossed some invisible line and left the realms of civilised conversation behind us.
Young girls around the world are suffering horrendous mutilation (now 200 millions) because of a deep-rooted cultural fear of female pleasure, and the same fear is preventing us from even articulating the problem. If we want to make progress on this issue, there are many positive actions we can take (I would recommend looking into the work of Forward UK among other FGM-focused charities). But we could begin by examining our own views and free our speech from the shackles of outdated and deeply misogynistic views on sex. Female genitals are very beautiful and since humankind exists female genitals are giving life on this planet! Female genitals like roses and more beautiful than male genitals. Be honest to yourself!
Misogyny and mass media;
Examples of misogyny exist in many published forms, within multiple cultures and well-observed works. Technological advances in the modern era have contributed proficient means to media and marketing to the resultant mass media in the 21st century. The merging of misogyny and mass media has made numerous examples where studies have concluded correlations between misogynous messages, both obvious and subliminal. Corresponding physical appearance of violence and hateful conduct may be seen relative to exposure!
Music, violence, and aggression:
Messages containing misogynous views are found commonly in the media. Cooper (1985) found after analyzing popular music over 30 years, that there was a tendency to describe women in terms of physical attributes or as evil, as possessions of men, or as dependent upon men. Dietz states that the concept of masculinity has come to be associated with sexual aggression. It is thought that audiences of unpunished violent behavior, compared to audiences of punished violent behavior are more likely to take part in violence. Some musical themes and lyrics can be compared to the negative attitude toward women found within some pornographic movies and magazines. This negative attitude and acceptance of violence towards women shows the possible likelihood of rape or sexual coercion. Fischer and Greitemeyer found that men who listened to sexually aggressive music reported that their relationship with women was more troublesome. Media Violence research has found that aggressive music adds an accessibility of aggressive related attitudes and emotions. Roberta Hamilton in her book Does Misogyny Matter? (1987) stated,"Misogyny is not a word useful simply for describing particularly nasty bits of behavior, but rather it directs us to a set of relations, attitudes, and behaviors that are embedded within all social relations"(p. 123). Violence in the form of linguistics is in fact a form of physical violence.
Rubin, West and Mitchell (2001) found that many studies have seen consumers of rap and heavy metal music as having more hostile attitudes, higher sexual activity and more drug use than consumers of other music.
Gangsta rap:Themes of misogyny can be seen in much gangsta rap (GR) music. This music elevates degradations of women such as rape, torment, and violence. In a study conducted by Armstrong in 2001, he found after examining 490 GR songs, that 22 percent contained violent and misogynist lyrics. Wester, Crown, Quatman, and Heesacker state that, "The increasing popularity of GR, coupled with documentation of society's increased sexism, domestic violence, sexual assault and other forms of degradation of women suggest that perhaps GR is partly to blame for an increase in anti-female attitudes and behaviors. It is difficult to tell whether GR directly causes misogynous attitudes or if it serves to increase preexisting anti-female cultural values. The difference between rap music and other types of music is that the lyrics are generally the main focus of attention. Rappers seem to commit themselves to worst impulses by telling their stories in the first-person.
In a study conducted by Barongan and Hall (1995), they had male college students listen to rap music with misogynous or neutral song lyrics. After listening to the different music, they viewed three different vignettes. These vignettes were either sexual-violent, neutral, or assaultive. Then the students were asked to choose one of the three vignettes to show a female. Those who had listened to the misogynous music were significantly more likely to show the female the assaultive vignette.
Regarding gangsta rap Yo-Yo states that, "The harder that you are, sad to say, the more you sell".
Violent and aggressive videos:
Felson, professor of crime, law, and justice and sociology at Penn State, states that a crowd of onlookers enjoys a street fight just as the Romans enjoyed the gladiators. Found frequently in MTV music videos are images of crime, sex, dance, visual abstraction and violence. Audiences of MTV tend to be between the ages of fourteen and thirty-four, therefore has potential of contributing to cultural norms. Smith and Boyson found that fifteen percent of music videos contain violence. Before the introduction of music videos, research found that both music and television retained adolescents' attention, but music effectively connected with their emotions. It is far more common to see a man being dominant over a woman, rather than a woman being dominant over a man in music videos. A study conducted by Rich, Woods, Goodman, Emans, and DuRant found that out of 518 music videos and among the 391 acts of violence the aggressors were 78 percent male and the victims were 46 percent female. The need for artists to fill hours of airtime on television make certain that artists and their videos increasingly become more shocking, as to be noticed. Violence and sex or the combination of the two, are most often used for a shocking effect on viewers.[
In a 1998 study conducted by Tracy L. Dietz, professor of Sociology & Anthropology at the University of Central Florida, sampled 33 prominent Nintendo and Sega games and found that nearly 80 percent of the video games had some violence and aggression as part of the main strategy or object. Dietz claimed that violence was directed specifically towards women in 21% of the games sampled. Also in 28 percent of the games women were, according to Dietz, seen as sex objects and in 41 percent of the games there were no female characters. Overall Dietz asserted that most video games minimize the role of females or leave females out of the game all together, and that when females were shown they were usually depicted in a supporting role to men or dependent upon the male. Women were also seen as contributing less than males and were their sex objects. Dietz stated that these depictions of women may allow boys and girls to internalize and accept the thought that women are victims, weak, and sex objects.[
Violent pornography:By making misogyny sexual, pornography teaches misogyny to its viewers. Negative effects from pornography have been thought to occur due to a violence component, and not to a sexual component. Males who have been previously enraged by a female are more likely to produce aggression against a female after being shown pornography depicting violence. The combination of sex and aggression is increasingly being shown within pornographic material, therefore could be a possible trigger for aggressively willing men to physical assault accessible women. The attorney general's commission found that viewing of sexually aggressive pornography is causally connected to sexual violent behavior. Sexual violence portrayed in pornography as pleasurable to the victim may increase approval of sexual coercion, there by relating to sexual violence. A common theme found within pornography is women enjoying victimization. This theme can be seen to give reason for violence and decrease general inhibitions against aggression.
Usenet:Barron and Kimmel found that Usenet contains less consensual sex and more coercive sex in the scenes depicted. Within Usenet it was found that 62.7 percent of the scenes had a male perpetrators and only 42.4 percent of the scenes contained female perpetrators. Victims within Usenet was found to be females 84.7 percent of the time. At nearly no expense Usenet offers the greatest access to the largest number of viewers.
Influencing misogyny:A summary of the effects of pornography research by Linz and Donnerstein (1989) concluded that depictions of sexual violence in the media, under some conditions, promote antisocial attitudes and behavior. Linz and Donnerstein focused on the detrimental effects of exposure to violent images in pornography portraying the myth that women enjoy or in some way benefit from rape, torture, or other forms of sexual violence. Other research has found similar outcomes (e.g., Allen et al., 1995). The viewing of coercive pornography relates to the strongest acceptance of rape myths, i.e. women want to be raped, women "ask for it", women want to be forced. Considering the commodification and objectification argument, concern exists that repeated exposure to coercive pornographic stimuli relates to increasingly negative attitudes toward women. More frequent use increased the dehumanizing effect of Internet pornography and led to more acceptance of violence toward women.
Pornography has been found to desensitize societies to violence against women, inspiring rapes and contributing to the sexual subordination of women to men (2009). Making their materials, pornographers exploit existing inequality between the sexes to coerce women and children to perform unwanted or dangerous sexual acts as a form of prostitution. Existing legal regulations in democratic societies have not approached pornography with these realities in mind, but usually rather as a right protected by freedom of expression, or as an "obscene" expression offending the public rather than harming any particular group. In rare but important instances, pornography has legally been seen as a harmful practice violating women's human or democratic rights to equality.
Most studies consistently show that after exposure to pornography and other forms of misogynistic media depicting degradation of women and rape, including hip hop and rap, viewers show attitudes that are less sympathetic to rape victims and more tolerant and accepting of violence toward women – in effect, such behavior becomes more "normalized" and "mainstreamed. It's desensitizing and addictive potentials are well-documented in its users."
Internet misogyny: Internet misogyny is enacted in different forms and on different platforms. When one objectifies or harasses online, they are likely doing so anonymously and using shaming tactics to stigmatize the victim's identity or body. In this anonymity, the objectifier averts all real-life responsibility while nonetheless enforcing real-life consequences for the woman. This tactic of anonymity fosters Internet objectification because it allows the objectifier to create a desired situation where the woman deals with the responsibilities instead of the objectifier.
We revile sexual violence but misogynistic populists thrive around the world !
The peace prize was well deserved. Yet the language of too many political leaders seems driven by the compulsion to demean women !
Most unpleasantly, we hear it in the language of jocularity or nod-and-a wink acceptance of rape itself. Consider, in this regard, Rodrigo Duterte, leader of the Philippines, and Jair Bolsonaro, the “Trump of the Tropics”, who leads the field in the Brazilian election, wielding rape references as rhetorical weapons. So does Italian interior minister Matteo Salvini, who has the dubious honour of importing sex-based slurs about female political rivals to the campaigns of western European democracies.
On it goes in America – the boorish litany with minor variations. For some, watching the painful testimony of Christine Blasey Ford and the reaction of the supreme court nominee of Brett Kavanaugh, this is evidence of a linear relationship between “white male privilege” and women being disbelieved when they allege sexual assault.
The most widely believed explanation is that male purveyors of hard populism can appeal to voters who feel politics has left them behind. Yes, there is an angry, left-behind working class displaced by automation and technology, fearful of its collective status being lowered. This is a group targeted by insurgent leaders, from America to the AfD in Germany, because it has shared grievances and reference points and contains target groups that populists most need – those who have stopped voting and have little connection to the mainstream parties.
Resisting the modern equivalent of John Knox’s “monstrous regiment of women” (he was on about female monarchs, but plus ça change) is often a theme of the new powerful misogyny. Trump exploited this against a female rival in Hillary Clinton, who was personally ill equipped to fight a battle against a new style of Republican foe. Enlightened but entitled was, it turned out, a poor mix for combating an insurgency, notwithstanding the blatant sexism of the Trump campaign.
In the U.S. the rise of women at work is only one part of the equation. The midwest and southern and “mountain” states, which helped Donald Trump to power, have relatively fewer women in the workplace than the rest of the US. So cultural facts matter as much, and often more, than purely economic ones.
An inconvenient but vital point about reprehensible language is that it is exciting, which is why even benign, moderate people enjoy an edgy joke or smile even when they feel they shouldn’t at the “wrong” thing to say. Trump grasps the attraction of the “forbidden” comment and the power of outrage to attract attention (and shares on social media).
So moderates need to rediscover a radical language of their own to offset this imbalance. Merely signalling disapproval of the other side by shouting louder will not do it. Or the interviewing of the grand strategist of Trump’s ideology, Steve Bannon, at how smoothly he had “owned” Hillary Clinton’s tag of Trump’s core supporters as “deplorables” and now used it to self-describe. Criticisms can swiftly morph, in a post-modernist alchemy, into badges of pride.
Remember too that female voters often fall for male leaders who have form on demeaning them (Trump’s “grab them by the pussy” remark) and signal zero interest in, or actively oppose, female social advancement. The 53% of white American women who voted for Trump decided that his lewd language was less important than the promise of restoring national pride, so progressives need to move beyond the chilly jargon of the “international rules-based order” – a great idea but not exactly a language to thrill. “America First” as a slogan, a leading Democrat pollster confides, “speaks to many women who equate it with putting your home first and staying out of wars.”
For example, very possibly, the false siren of Trump’s promises will begin to lose its appeal in the November midterms – Republican strategists think suburban women may be drifting away from him, despite the robust US economy. But let’s not count the chickens from the Kavanaugh affair before they’re hatched on voting day. Crystallising the argument too fiercely between “#I believe Blasey Ford” versus “I believe Kavanaugh” fails to address many quiet voters, who may feel sympathy for the public ordeal she endured and believe her account, but worry too that the summary justice of #MeToo could produce unfairnesses that might hit a spouse, brother or son.
There is no reason here to back away from campaigns for equality. On the contrary, the invective against women is a sign of just how far societies still have to go towards that goal and how much men need to get on board with the challenge. The demagogic bully pulpit will not have the final word, because it is always a false siren, for men, women and the next generation. But combating it means opponents need to revisit their own language.
Words really are the prime weapon in this culture war – so let’s hone better ones for the fight.
books about hate crimes against females:
Not for Sale: The Return of the Global Slave Trade--and How We Can Fight It by David Batstone (Autor) :
“Human trafficking is not an issue of the left or right, blue states or red states, but a great moral tragedy we can unite to stop . . . Not for Sale is a must-read to see how you can join the fight.” —Jim Wallis, author of God's Politics
“David Batstone is a heroic character.” —Bono
In the revised and updated version of this harrowing yet deeply inspirational exposé, award-winning journalist David Batstone gives the most up-to-date information available on the $31 billion human trafficking epidemic. With profiles of twenty-first century abolitionists like Thailand’s Kru Nam and Peru’s Lucy Borja, Batstone tells readers what they can do to stop the modern slave trade. Like Kevin Bales’ Disposable People and Ending Slavery, or E. Benjamin Skinner’s A Crime So Monstrous, Batstone’s Not for Sale is an informative and necessary manifesto for universal freedom.
I Was a Whore at Four: the redemptive story of a child sex slave by Pamela E Lockridge (Autor):
This book was not written as most books, where the author knows they were meant to write a book. This book did not even start with a storyline or outline. It was written by the author, as she was forced to revisit her horrendous past as a child sex slave from the age of four to eighteen. She reveals how she was finally able to escape the lifelong terror of her captor. As she writes, she realizes that the end of her life as a child sex slave, was the beginning of a beautiful life (foreordained by her loving Father in heaven), which she could have never imagined possible. When the time finally arrived for her to confront all the living family members about her child sexual slavery/ abuse, the author discovered a mind-blowing sequence of events which answered the most significant question of all. Who was complicit in her child sex slavery so many years ago? She journeyed to find the answer as she received revelation after revelation— that undeniably—led her to complete closure and healing. Her story is a powerful representation of God’s grace and protective power for all mankind. And proves that only the Savior could bring her such wonderful wholeness. And return her to sublime innocence and purity before the world, because He is able.The author unravels her adult journey as she deals with her fourteen year stint as a child sex slave. As she searches for complete closure , she likens this journey to the unraveling of an afghan—as she located and pulled the one string that would expose the total meaning behind her life’s pain and suffering. This string, pulled at just the right time, brought her total insight, meaning and hope, that was buried behind all of life’s former minutiae. At just the right time, her adventure to find truth began, and took on a life of its own, with her loving Father’s direction. May other adult victims of child sex slavery/ abuse find their own string as well— to begin their path to closure. And receive eternal salvation, comfort, and the unconditional agape love of the Lord.
Child Sex Slave: A Memoir by Monluedee Luecha (Autor) :
Child Sex Slave: A Memoir is a rare, detailed firsthand account of what it is like to be a child sex slave in Asia, and how one managed to escape against all odds. This book was written to show the atrocities facing children when adults fail to protect them.
A Promise To Nadia: A true story of a British slave in the Yemen by Zana Muhsen (Autor):
en years previously Zana Muhsen escaped from the life of slavery in the Yemen into which her father had sold her as a child bride, leaving behind her baby son, her sister Nadia, and Nadia's two small children. As she described so powerfully in her internationally bestselling book SOLD, Zana made a solemn vow to Nadia that she would do everything she possibly could to obtain their freedom as well.
A PROMISE TO NADIA tells the extraordinary story of those ten years; of the family's lone campaign against the Yemeni authorities; of the refusal of their own government in London to help; and of the despair that forced them into a desperate deal with an unofficial military-style organisation specialising in the recovery of abducted children.
Yasmeena's Choice: A True Story of War, Rape, Courage and Survival by Jean Sasson (Autor),:
This is the true story of Yasmeena, a bright and beautiful young Lebanese woman who was imprisoned in Kuwait during the first Gulf War. Yasmeena's shocking journey is a tale of the madness of war, of the sexual brutality unleashed by chaos, and of one woman's courage to stand in danger's way to aid her fellow sufferers. This is an explicit, graphic, and honest book. It is for mature audiences only.
Jean Sasson has spent her career sharing the personal stories of courageous Middle Eastern women. Princess: Life Behind the Veil in Saudi Arabia was an international bestseller. It has become a classic, taught in colleges and high schools and devoured by anyone who aspires to understand the Middle East. Yasmeena was quite literally an innocent abroad. She was a college educated, English-speaking flight attendant graced with an unusual amount of confidence and sophistication. She was also a virgin and a conservative Muslim daughter and sister. When Yasmeena's flight out of Kuwait was delayed, it was because Saddam Hussein had just invaded Kuwait. Iraqi soldiers threw her into a woman's prison where the guards committed ghastly sexual attacks and tortured the women in excruciating ways.
After Yasmeena was brutalized by the captain of the prison, she thought she was the most unfortunate woman on earth. But that was before she befriended Lana, whose brutal rapist took glee in inflicting hurt. Yasmeena used her position as the captain's favorite to protect her friend, though she also was forced into a wrenching decision.
Yasmeena's Choice reads like a thriller. As the Americans and other allies march into Kuwait and the Iraqis flee, Yasmeena escapes. Eventually she finds a safe harbor where Sasson interviews her and records every horrific element of her experience. Sasson has wanted to write this story for many years. But she knew that the sexual explicitness and violence would make the tale difficult to publish. A year ago, Yasmeena's story and the choices she was forced to make invaded Sassons dreams. She realized that now was the right time to share the story. And so here it is, Sasson's testament to an articulate, angry, brave young woman who not only survived but who was eager to share her story with the world.
Sold To Be A Wife: Only a determined foster carer can stop a terrified girl from becoming a child bride by Maggie Hartley (Autor):
The powerfully moving new novel from Sunday Times bestselling author, Maggie Hartley.
Fourteen-year-old Shazia has been taken into care after a conversation at school leads her teacher to suspect that the teenager's family are planning to send her to Pakistan for an arranged marriage.
To her family's fury, Shazia is sent to live with foster carer Maggie Hartley whilst social services investigate. But with Shazia denying everything and social services unable to find any evidence to support the teacher's fears, Shazia is allowed to return home.
But a few weeks later, Maggie is woken up in the middle of the night by a phone call from a terrified Shazia, who has managed to escape the family home through a window. Sobbing, she confesses to Maggie that her parents are planning to send her to Pakistan to be married in a few days, and have threatened to kill her if she speaks out again.
Returned to Maggie's care, Shazia is petrified that her parents will track her down and kill her, and Maggie must be on constant alert. But the worst is yet to come when it emerges that Shazia is the victim of FGM. Can Maggie help this damaged and traumatised young girl understand what has happened to her and to find a way to heal?
In this new book, Maggie Hartley taps into the highly topical issues of FGM and arranged marriage, and presents a sensitive and unique insight into the effect these practices have on their young victims.
The Comfort Women: Sex slaves of the Japanese Imperial Forces: Sex Slaves of the Imperial Japanese Forces by George Hicks (Autor):
Over 100,000 women across Asia were victims of enforced prostitution by the Japanese Imperial Forces during World War II. Until as recently as 1993 the Japanese government continued to deny this shameful aspect of its wartime history.
In 1938 the Japanese Imperial Forces established a 'comfort station' in Shanghai. This was the first of many officially sanctioned brothels set up across Asia to service the needs of the Japanese forces. It was also the first comfort station where women, many in their early teens, were coaxed, tricked and forcibly recruited to act as prostitutes for the Japanese military.
Using official documents and other original sources never before available, George Hicks tells how well-established and well-organised the comfort system was across the Japanese Empire, and how complete was its cover-up. He also traces the fight by Japanese and Korean feminist and liberal groups to expose the truth and tells of the complicity of the Japanese government in maintaining the lie. The Comfort Women is an account of a shameful aspect of Japanese racial and gender politics.
The Comfort Women allows the victims of this unacknowledged war crime to tell their own stories powerfully and poignantly; to speak of their shame and the full magnitude and brutality of the system.
'The most extensive record available in English of the ugly story.' Elisabeth Rubinfein, New York Newsday
Cut: One Woman's Fight Against FGM in Britain Today by Hibo Wardere:
The sad truth about the pain of 200 millions of girls and women, who have forceful undergone FGM: they are only castrated sex slaves and child bearing machines, worthless like trash for their sadistic rapists and husbands. It is the only wish of these men to have a castrated and underaged girl bride, the pain and the tears and the early and painful death of these girls and women is not for any interest for these men. Every horse and every falcon has more rights in their eyes than the females, the human trash in their eyes!
Imagine for a moment that you are 6-years-old and you are woken in the early hours, bathed and then dressed in rags before being led down to an ominous looking tent at the end of your garden. And there, you are subjected to the cruellest cut, ordered by your own mother.
Forced down on a bed, her legs held apart, Hibo Warderewas made to undergo female genital cutting, a process so brutal, she nearly died.
As a teenager she moved to London in the shadow of the Somalian Civil War where she quickly learnt the procedure she had undergone in her home country was not 'normal' in the west. She embarked on a journey to understand FGM and its roots, whilst raising her own family and dealing with the devastating consequences of the cutting in her own life. Today Hibo finds herself working in London as an FGM campaigner, helping young girls whose families plan to take them abroad for the procedure. She has vowed to devote herself to the campaign against FGM.
Eloquent and searingly honest, this is Hibo's memoir which promises not only to tell her remarkable story but also to shed light on a medieval practice that's being carried out in the 21stcentury, right on our doorstep. FGM in the UK has gone undocumented for too long and now that's going to change. Devastating, empowering and informative, this book brings to life a clash of cultures at the heart of contemporary society and shows how female genital mutilation is a very British problem.
Sex Trafficking: Inside the Business of Modern Slavery by Siddharth Kara (Autor):
Since the publication of Sex Trafficking in 2007, Siddharth Kara has continued to travel across countries and continents, documenting the local factors and economic forces that support sexual slavery worldwide. His riveting encounters with victims and traffickers informed his screenplay for Trafficked (2016), now a major motion picture. The film features familiar figures from Sex Trafficking and the shocking conditions of their exploitation. It also includes cases Kara has uncovered since his book debuted.
This new paperback edition of Sex Trafficking includes a preface by Kara in which he discusses his findings and updates the statistics relating to his business and economic analysis of contemporary slavery. After fifteen years, Kara has recorded nearly 900 cases of sex trafficking in forty-one countries and has helped advise on numerous legal, tactical, and policy efforts for abolishing modern-day slavery across the globe. Sex Trafficking continues to lead as a resource for those hoping to expose this hidden evil and eradicate its practice once and for all.
"Rape Is Rape": How Denial, Distortion, and Victim Blaming Are Fueling a Hidden Acquaintance Rape Crisis by Jody Raphael JD:
“More than half of women and girls lie about rape . . .” “Feminists exaggerate rape prevalence to demonize men and raise money for their cause . . .” “Girls cry ‘rape’ when it’s nothing more than regret over bad sex . . .” Such emotionally charged false accusations have convinced much of the general public and the media that acquaintance rape is a figment of the imagination. As author Jody Raphael reveals in Rape Is Rape, the more acquaintance rape is reported and taken seriously by prosecutors, judges, and juries, the louder the clamor of rape denial becomes.
Through firsthand interviews with victims, medical and judicial records, social media analysis, and statistics from government agencies, Rape Is Rape exposes the tactics used by the deniers, a group that includes conservatives and right-wing Christians as well as some controversial feminists. The personal stories of young acquaintance rape victims whom Raphael interviewed demonstrate how assaults on their credibility, buttressed by claims of low prevalence, prevent many from holding their rapists accountable, enabling them to rape others with impunity. Rape Is Rape is an exposé of those using rape denial to further their political agendas, and it is a call to action to protect the rights of women and girls, making it safe for victims to come forward, and end the acquaintance rape crisis. A resources section is included for those seeking help, advice, or hoping to get involved.
"No Nation for Women": Reportage on Rape from India, the World's Largest Democracy by Priyanka Dubey:
No Nation for Women takes a hard, close look at what makes India unsafe for its women — from custodial rapes and honour killings to rapes of minors and trafficking — the author uncovers many unpalatable truths behind what we are familiar with as newspaper headlines only...
Numbers convey, in part, why India is referred to as one of the world’s rape capitals — one woman is raped every 15 minutes; and, in 50 years, there has been a staggering rise of 873 per cent in sexual crimes against girls.
And beyond the numbers and statistics, there are stories, often unreported — of women in Damoh, Madhya Pradesh, who are routinely raped if they spurn the advances of men; of girls from de-notified tribes in central India who have no recourse to justice if sexually violated; of victimized lower-caste girls in small-town Baduan, Uttar Pradesh; of frequent dislocation faced by survivor families in West Bengal; of political wrath turning into rape in Tripura.
Priyanka Dubey travels through large swathes of India, over a period of six years, to uncover the accounts of disenfranchised women who are caught in the grip of patriarchy and violence. She asks if, after the globally reported December 2012 gang-rape of ‘Nirbhaya’ in New Delhi, India’s gender narrative has shifted — and, if it hasn’t, what needs to be done to make this a nation worthy of its women.
"The Porn Myth": Exposing the Reality Behind the Fantasy of Pornography by Matthew Fradd;
Porn is paid rape!The Porn Myth is a non-religious response to the commonly held belief that pornography is a harmless or even beneficial pastime. Author Matt Fradd draws on the experience of porn performers and users, and the expertise of neurologists, sociologists, and psychologists to demonstrate that pornography is destructive to individuals, relationships, and society. He provides insightful arguments, supported by the latest scientific research, to discredit the fanciful claims used to defend and promote pornography.
This book explains the neurological reasons porn is addictive, helps individuals learn how to be free of porn, and offers real help to the parents and the spouses of porn users. Because recent research on pornography's harmful effects on the brain validates the experiences of countless porn users, there is a growing wave of passionate individuals trying to change the pro-porn cultural norm-by inspiring others to pursue real love and to avoid its hollow counterfeit.
Matt Fradd and this book are part of that movement, which is aiding the many men and women who are seeking a love untainted by warped perceptions of intimacy and rejecting the influence of porn in their lives.
"Mother at Seven": The Shocking True Story of an Armenian Girl’s Stolen Childhood and Her Family’s Unspeakable, Cruel Betrayal by
Veronika Gasparyan :
Mother at Seven is the shocking, inspirational true story of a little girl’s tragic childhood, and how she endured and overcame a decade of unspeakable abuse at the hands of her cruel and sadistic family. Set in Sochi, Russia, near the banks of the majestic Black Sea, Mother at Seven tells of those critical moments in a child’s life when the only thing standing between the life and death itself was a pure and innocent belief that better days lie ahead. It teaches that by fighting through hardship and pain, miracles can still happen, and that life can still be amazing as long as hope is never lost.
We're Not Supposed to Tell You: Sex Slavery, Drugs, and Other Secrets of Thailand's Prostitution Industry by Noi Thawattana (Autor) :
Thailand's prostitution industry has secrets, and there's a lot that bargirls are not supposed to tell their customers.
If customers ask, bargirls have to say that they love their jobs, no one is forcing them to do it, they've never tried drugs, they are regularly tested for diseases, and of course they're over eighteen years old. How else can they answer, especially with a boss watching over them?
The truth is often very different from these answers and Thai smiles, and the truth is seldom realized by tourists to Thailand.
We're Not Supposed to Tell You details the gritty reality of Thai sex work, including debt slavery, drug addiction, and underage prostitution. It was written by an insider, a former bargirl who now lives in the United States, and is no longer afraid to speak out about what bargirls know but most customers don't know or choose not to acknowledge.
The Natashas: The Horrific Inside Story of Slavery, Rape, and Murder in the Global Sex Trade by Victor Malarek (Autor);
The shocking story of the Eastern European women victimized by the business of worldwide human trafficking—and those who profit from it. “Required reading” (The New York Post).
On the black market, they’re the third most profitable commodity, after illegal weapons and drugs. The only difference is that these goods are women and girls, some as young as twelve, from all over the Eastern Bloc, where networks of organized crime have become entrenched in the aftermath of the collapse of the Communist regimes.
In Israel, they’re called Natashas, whether they’re actually from Russia, Bosnia, the Czech Republic, or Ukraine. Promised jobs as waitresses, models, nannies, dishwashers, maids, and dancers, they are then stripped of their identification, sold into prostitution, and kept enslaved. Resistance is futile, even dangerous, and the victims often have nowhere to turn. In many cases, those who should be rescuing them—immigration officials, police officers, or international peacekeepers—are among their most hostile aggressors.
In this “graphic…scathing indictment” (Kirkus Reviews) of a crisis of epic proportions, Victor Malarek exposes the global phenomenon of sexual trafficking, a form of modern slavery and a multibillion-dollar industry whose scope has, until now, remained largely unknown. An indispensible and startling call to action to end this institutionalized crime against humanity, The Natashas is an “impassioned [and] intensely affecting read.”(Chicago Sun-Times).
Sexual Enslavement of Girls and Women Worldwide by Andrea Parrot (Autor);
They are in different countries but share the same hell. Maria is one of 14 women lured from Mexico to Seattle, Washington, with the promise of a job, then held by force in a brothel and required to sexually service men 12 hours a day. Anna is a young mother from the Ukraine who left her husband and children there to take a job as a housecleaner in Italy, where she was put in a barred, guarded house and forced into prostitution. Nadia is an 11-year-old girl in Africa, kidnapped and forced to have sex with a militiaman daily, with a machete ever ready nearby should she refuse. All three women are part of horrific sex slavery that has drawn the attention of officials in countries around the globe. It is not rare; officials say it is increasing, at least partly due to the billions of dollars it brings in for organized crime. The U.S. State Department estimates 800,000 victims, mostly women and children, are trafficked for sex trade across nations each year and millions more are trafficked within countries - including the U.S., Britain, Spain, and the Netherlands. As a Seattle Times reporter explained when Maria's case hit the news there, the reality is that sex slaves for the most part are young women and teenaged girls who come from almost every one of the world's poorer countries and end up in almost every country where there is a combination of sexual demand and money. But they are also in undeveloped Africa, in prisons internationally, locked in forced marriages, or sold to men by parents.
In this book, Parrot and Cummings outline the scope and growth of the sex slave market today and explain the history with various elements - including economic, political, cultural, and religious - that make this trade difficult to fully expose, quell, combat, and shut down. We hear from girls and women around the world describing how sexual enslavement has tortured them physically, emotionally, and spiritually, whether they suffer at the hands of prison guards in Turkey, criminals in Washington, or buyers dealing with parents who sell their daughters for the sex slave trade in Greece, Belgium, or France. The authors also describe national and international efforts and legislation passed or in design to stop sex slavery. Successful countries and regions are spotlighted. Then Parrot and Cummings point out actions still needed to stop the sex slavery trade.
Stolen Girls: Survivors of Boko Haram Tell Their Story by Wolfgang Bauer (Autor);
One night in April 2014, members of the terrorist organization Boko Haram raided the small town of Chibok in northeast Nigeria and abducted 276 young girls from the local boarding school. The event caused massive, international outrage. Using the hashtag “Bring Back Our Girls,” politicians, activists, and celebrities from all around the world—among them First Lady Michelle Obama and Nobel Peace Prize winner Malala Yousafzai