Stop using the organophosphate pesticde NALED over populated areas to fight mosquitos.
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Stop the use of NALED via areial and truck spraying over and near populated areas for mosquito control.
Naled is a fast acting, non-systemic contact and stomach poison in insects and mites (2). It is used as a short-term fumigant to control agricultural pests on ornamentals in greenhouses, animal and poultry houses, kennels and food processing plants (1, 6). Liquid formulations can be applied to greenhouse heating pipes to kill insects by vapor action. Naled is also used for municipal and other large area mosquito control programs (3). It has been used by veterinarians to kill parasitic worms (other than tapeworms) in dogs (6). Naled is available in dust, emulsion concentrate, liquid and ULV formulations (3).
Naled is one of a class of insecticides referred to as organophosphates. These chemicals act by interfering with the activities of cholinesterase, an enzyme that is essential for the proper working of the nervous systems of both humans and insects. Please refer to the Toxicology Information Brief on cholinesterase-inhibition for a more detailed description of this topic.
Naled is moderately to highly toxic by ingestion, inhalation and dermal adsorption. Vapors or fumes of naled are corrosive to the mucous membranes lining the mouth, throat and lungs, and inhalation may cause severe irritation (9). A sensation of tightness in the chest and coughing are commonly experienced after inhalation (14). As with all organophosphates, naled is readily absorbed through the skin. Skin which has come in contact with this material should be washed immediately with soap and water and all contaminated clothing should be removed. Persons with respiratory ailments, recent exposure to cholinesterase inhibitors, impaired cholinesterase production, or with liver malfunction may be at increased risk from exposure to naled. High environmental temperatures or exposure of naled to visible or UV light may enhance its toxicity (9).
The organophosphate insecticides are cholinesterase inhibitors. They are highly toxic by all routes of exposure. When inhaled, the first effects are usually respiratory and may include bloody or runny nose, coughing, chest discomfort, difficult or short breath, and wheezing due to constriction or excess fluid in the bronchial tubes. Skin contact with organophosphates may cause localized sweating and involuntary muscle contractions. Eye contact will cause pain, bleeding, tears, pupil constriction, and blurred vision. Following exposure by any route, other systemic effects may begin within a few minutes or be delayed for up to 12 hours. These may include pallor, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, headache, dizziness, eye pain, blurred vision, constriction or dilation of the eye pupils, tears, salivation, sweating, and confusion. Severe poisoning will affect the central nervous system, producing incoordination, slurred speech, loss of reflexes, weakness, fatigue, involuntary muscle contractions, twitching, tremors of the tongue or eyelids, and eventually paralysis of the body extremities and the respiratory muscles. In severe cases there may also be involuntary defecation or urination, psychosis, irregular heart beats, unconsciousness, convulsions and coma. Death may be caused by respiratory failure or cardiac arrest (9).
Some organophosphates may cause delayed symptoms beginning 1 to 4 weeks after an acute exposure which may or may not have produced more immediate symptoms. In such cases, numbness, tingling, weakness and cramping may appear in the lower limbs and progress to incoordination and paralysis. Improvement may occur over months or years, but some residual impairment may remain in some cases (9).
Naled may cause dermatitis (skin rashes) and skin sensitization (allergies) (2, 6). It is corrosive to the skin and eyes and may cause permanent damage (3). An aerial applicator developed contact dermatitis after using Dibrom. The exposed area became red and felt burned. Later, water filled blisters formed. They became itchy and dry, then flaked off (ACGIH TLVS 4th Ed. & Supplement. 1980).
The amount of a chemical that is lethal to one-half (50%) of experimental animals fed the material is referred to as its acute oral lethal dose fifty, or LD50. The oral LD50 for naled in rats is 50 to 281 mg/kg, in mice is 330 to 375 mg/kg, and in chickens is 281 mg/kg (2, 3). Rats have tolerated a dosage of 28 mg/kg/day for 9 weeks with no visible signs of poisoning and with only moderate inhibition of cholinesterase (2). The dermal LD50 for naled in rabbits is 1,100 mg/kg, and in rats is 800 mg/kg (2, 3).
The lethal concentration fifty, or LC50, is that concentration of a chemical in air or water that kills half of the experimental animals exposed to it for a set time period. The inhalation LC50 for naled in rats is 7.7 mg/kg, and 156 mg/kg in mice (9).
Repeated or prolonged exposure to organophosphates may result in the same effects as acute exposure including the delayed symptoms. Other effects reported in workers repeatedly exposed include impaired memory and concentration, disorientation, severe depressions, irritability, confusion, headache, speech difficulties, delayed reaction times, nightmares, sleepwalking and drowsiness or insomnia. An influenza-like condition with headache, nausea, weakness, loss of appetite, and malaise has also been reported (9).
Once in the bloodstream, naled may cross the placenta (9).
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Naled is mutagenic to bacteria (Chem. Biol. Interact. 43 (3):361-370. 1983; NIOSH RTECS Online File # 84/8309).
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Naled primarily affects the nervous system through cholinesterase inhibition, by which there is a deactivation of cholinesterase, an enzyme required for proper nerve functioning. Lab studies have shown liver damage in rats.
Fate in Humans and Animals
Naled is readily absorbed into the bloodstream through all normal routes of exposure: skin, lungs and gut. Metabolism is in the liver. Accumulation may occur in the bones (of rats). No accumulation effects have been reported in man. Excretion is through the urine (Menzie. Metab. Pesticides. 1969).
Effects on Birds
Naled is highly to moderately toxic to birds. The LD50 for naled in ducks is 52 mg/kg (NIOSH RTECS Online File # 84/8309), 65 mg/kg in grouse and 37 mg/kg in Canadian geese (4).
Effects on Aquatic Organisms
Naled is toxic to most types of aquatic life (8). Some species are especially sensitive to naled (fathead minnow, bluegill, and mosquito fish) (Hndbk Acute Tox. Chem. Fish and Aquatic Inverts. 1980). Agricultural application of 560 g/HA of naled did not kill mosquito fish or tadpoles in irrigation ditches. The 24-hour LC50 for naled in goldfish is 2 to 4 mg/l (3).
Effects on Other Animals (Nontarget species)
Naled is highly toxic to bees (3). Mule deer are more resistant than most wildlife species. The LD50 for naled in mule deer is 200 mg/kg (4).
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