Primarily Primates, Incorporated is a non-profit sanctuary in Bexar County, Texas that operates to house, protect, and rehabilitate various non-native animals. The private refuge currently houses several hundred nonhuman animals, and, as the name implies, focuses primarily on caring for apes and monkeys. Many are cast-offs from the pet trade and biomedical research institutions. Individuals who have been accepted into the refuge include chimpanzees once used in space training and testing protocols by the United States Air Force and Oliver, a chimpanzee once paraded on television shows as the "humanzee" due to a habit of walking upright.
Primarily Primates was founded in 1978. Its current board, structured in 2007 under an agreement with the Attorney General of the State of Texas, includes a long-time sanctuary facilitator with extensive primate experience, and the president of the animal-advocacy group Friends of Animals.