Global Scholars for Brazilian Democracy

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    Lula da Silva is a political prisoner. Free Lula!

     Three hundred academics and public intellectuals joined to launch a manifesto entitled “Lula da Silva is a political prisoner. #FreeLula!,” denouncing the detention of the former Brazilian president and current Presidential candidate Lula da Silva. The petition discusses in detail the arbitrary nature of the trial conducted by Judge Sergio Moro against Lula da Silva, stating that he is nothing less than a political prisoner. The document asserts that the international community should treat him as such and demands his immediate release. The manifesto is supported by world-famous legal scholars, such as Karl Klare, Friedrich Müller, António José Avelãs Nunes and Jonathan Simon. Eminent researchers of law and lawfare, such as John Comaroff, Eve Darian-Smith, Tamar Herzog and Elizabeth Mertz, champion the manifesto. International labor lawyers and trade unionists, such as Stanley Gacek, also support it. Additionally, the petition is backed by world-renowned public intellectuals like Tariq Ali, Robert Brenner, Wendy Brown, Noam Chomsky, Angela Davis, Axel Honneth, Fredric R. Jameson, Leonardo Padura, Carole Pateman, Thomas Piketty, Boaventura de Sousa Santos and Slavoj Žižek. Leading sociologists as Fred Block, Mark Blyth, Michael Burawoy, Peter Evans, Neil Fligstein, Marion Fourcade, Leo Panitch, Frances Fox Piven, Michael Heinrich, Michael Löwy, Laura Nader, Erik Olin Wright, Dylan Riley, Ananya Roy, Wolfgang Streeck, Göran Therborn, Michael J. Watts and Suzi Weissman also have signed the petition. The manifesto is embraced by famous specialists and directors of research centers on Latin American Studies like Alex Borucki, Aviva Chomsky, Brodwyn Fischer, Barbara Fritz, James N. Green, Victoria Langland, Mara Loveman, Carlos Marichal, Teresa A. Meade, Tianna Paschel, Erika Robb Larkins, Aaron Schneider, Stanley J. Stein and Barbara Weinstein. Moreover, the petition is endorsed by distinguished economists like Dean Baker, Ha-Joon Chang, Giovanni Dosi, Gérard Duménil, Gary Dymski, Geoffrey Hodgson, Costas Lapavitsas, Marc Lavoie, Thomas Palley, Robert Pollin, Pierre Salama, Guy Standing, Robert H. Wade and Mark Weisbrot.   New subscriptions with academic affiliation are accepted at freelula.manifest@gmail.com   Below is the Manifesto and the full initial list of subscribers:   Lula da Silva is a political prisoner. Free Lula!  We hereby manifest our deep concern about the circumstances under which the former Brazilian president Lula da Silva was tried and imprisoned. There is abundant evidence that Lula da Silva was a victim of lawfare, that is, the abuse of judicial power for political purposes. Hence, the international community should consider and treat him as a political prisoner. Lula’s trial was conducted as part of the so-called Operation Car Wash, an investigation of the payment of procurement kickbacks to Petrobras officials and politicians, some of which took place while Lula was president. While critics claim that “Lula should have known” or “Lula must have gained something,” there is no evidence of his participation in the kickbacks.  According to Brazilian laws and legal doctrines, corruption is a quid pro quo transaction. To convict Lula for corruption, the prosecution should prove that he had participated in the procurement frauds and that he had been compensated for such illicit acts. In 2016, Lula was accused of receiving a rather modest apartment from OAS, one of the Petrobras contractors involved in the corruption scheme. However, no wiretapped conversations, bank transactions, transfer of funds or title deeds have ever substantiated the case against Lula. He never used or profited from the apartment. Worse still, it later emerged that the same apartment had already been used as collateral by OAS in a long-term loan transaction when the accusation was made that Lula was the owner. The lack of incriminating evidence was disregarded by Sergio Moro, the judge responsible for the case against Lula. Moro based his decision on the “informal collaboration” (not even a formal plea bargain) that offered a substantial reduction of jail time if Lula’s codefendant pleaded guilty and produced incriminating evidence against Lula. The co-defendant was Leo Pinheiro, OAS’s owner. Pinheiro had already been sentenced to 26 years when he decided to “collaborate” and implicate Lula. He stated that the apartment was “meant to be given” to Lula, an accusation which contradicted 73 other depositions. But his statement was considered enough for Justice Moro to convict Lula da Silva. Pinheiro’s sentence, in turn, was reduced to three years, and he was released from prison during the day. Besides failing to prove Lula’s ownership of the apartment, the Prosecution could not point to any specific action or omission that Lula had undertaken to benefit OAS. Lula had been accused of benefiting the co-defendant with three procurement contracts with Petrobras. After months of investigations, no material proof was found. Moro then convicted Lula for performing “indeterminable acts of corruption” that benefited OAS. This categorization shifts the burden of proof and the presumption of innocence and does not exist in the Brazilian legal system. Inadvertently, Judge Moro himself admitted that he lacked jurisdiction over Lula’s case. When deciding a motion filed by the defense, he declared that he had “never affirmed, not would be required to prove, that the money used to build the apartment allegedly given to Lula originated from contracts between OAS and Petrobras.” If the case has no relationship with the Petrobras corruption, it should not have been reviewed by Moro. Simply put, Lula’s process was one in which the trial magistrate chose his defendant and, acting as the investigator, prosecutor, and judge, convicted him of having committed “undetermined official acts of corruption.”  Such a sentence, by its very wording, is legally and constitutionally unsustainable, including by Brazilian standards, given the reference to undetermined. A sentence referring to undetermined crimes fails all logic and reasonable legal scrutiny and is thoroughly Kafkaesque. Moreover, the reference to official acts is unreal, since the unfounded accusations motivating Moro’s sentence refer to a narrative beginning in 2013, well after Lula was out of office. The lawfare against Lula also included tactics to keep his case under Moro’s purview at all costs.  In March 2016, Moro leaked illegally obtained wiretaps of the sitting president, Dilma Rousseff, regarding Lula’s appointment as Chief of Staff in her administration. He claimed, again without proof, that this appointment was meant to “obstruct justice,” since once appointed to the administration Lula would be judged by the Supreme Federal Court (STF) and not by Moro himself. Although Moro´s impartiality was questioned, the Federal Regional Court for the 4th Circuit (TRF – 4), the next tribunal to review Lula’s case in the hierarchy of the Brazilian judiciary, ruled that Operation Car Wash was “exceptional” and that “ordinary rules don’t apply.” The Kafkaesque nature of Lula’s trial was reinforced when, in August 2017, the presiding justice of the TRF-4 declared that Moro’s sentence against Lula was “technically irreproachable,” while admitting that he had not even read the case. Meanwhile, his chief of staff posted a petition requesting Lula da Silva’s imprisonment on her Facebook page. TRF-4 rushed its decision. The review of Moro’s sentence against Lula was placed ahead of 257 other cases that were pending. The reporting judge for TRF-4 took only six days to issue his findings for a case with literally thousands of pages of transcripts and hours of depositions. The TRF 4 panel took 196 days to decide. On average, it takes 473 days for similar cases. The TRF-4 also ordered Lula’s immediate arrest. Only 3 of the other 20 Car Wash defendants whose appeals were denied were sent to jail, and the incarcerations were implemented months after the decision. Lula petitioned the Supreme Federal Court (STF), requesting a habeas corpus order against his immediate imprisonment because he still had the right to file appeals. According to the Brazilian Constitution, “no one can be deemed guilty until his or her last appeal has been decided.” Given this constitutional doctrine in Brazilian justice, it is important to note the following: the merits of Moro’s sentence against Lula, sustained and exacerbated by the TRF- 4 (extending imprisonment from 9 to 12 years), still have not been reviewed by the higher courts in the Brazilian judiciary system, including the STJ (Supreme Court of Justice) and the STF, the highest court in the country for constitutional questions. In a tie-breaking vote denying the habeas corpus petition, a STF Justice declared that she would have voted otherwise if the Court had reviewed the constitutional doctrine in general, instead of its specific application to Lula’s case. The day before the vote, the Army’s Chief Commander tweeted out a message to the Court, saying that “the Army will not tolerate impunity.” For this thinly veiled threat, he got not a reprimand, but a “like” from the Twitter account of the very same TRF-4 that had confirmed Lula’s conviction. The following morning, the judge presiding over the TRF-4 predicted that Lula’s detention could not occur in less than a month’s time, given all the legal proceedings still pending before the tribunal. In the afternoon, however, the TRF-4 requested Moro to order his arrest. It took Moro nineteen minutes to issue a decision that acknowledged that Lula still had the legal right to have another motion heard by the TRF-4, while declaring that this right to appeal was a “procrastinating pathology” that should be “wiped out of Brazilian laws.” It should come as no surprise that a recent poll showed that 55% of the Brazilian respondents agree that “Lula is being persecuted by the Judiciary,” and 73% agree with the statement that “the powerful want him out of the elections” in which he still is the favorite candidate by far. The abuses of judicial power over Lula da Silva are thinly disguised political persecution under a legal cover. Lula da Silva is a political prisoner. His detention tarnishes Brazilian democracy. The supporters of democracy and social justice in the East and the West, in the North and the Global South, should join in a worldwide movement to demand Lula da Silva’s release. We demand: Free Lula, Lula Libre, Liberté por Lula, Freiheit für Lula, Lula Libero, حرية, 释放卢拉, 룰라 석방하라!, חוֹפֶשׁ, フリーダム, Свободу Луле, Lula Livre!     Trezentos acadêmicos e intelectuais das maiores universidades do mundo lançaram um manifesto intitulado “Lula da Silva é um prisioneiro político. Lula Livre!”, denunciando a detenção do ex-presidente e atual candidato à presidência Lula da Silva. A petição discute em detalhe a natureza arbitrária do processo conduzido pelo juiz Sérgio Moro contra Lula, afirmando que ele é nada menos do que um prisioneiro político. O documento declara que a comunidade internacional deve trata-lo como tal e demanda sua imediata libertação. O manifesto é apoiado por acadêmicos e intelectuais de todo o mundo, mas principalmente dos EUA e da Europa. A petição declara que “os abusos do poder judiciário contra Lula da Silva configuram uma perseguição política mal disfarçada sob manto legal. Lula da Silva é um preso político. Sua detenção mancha a democracia brasileira. Os defensores da democracia e da justiça social no Oriente e no Ocidente, no Norte e no Sul do globo, devem se unir a um movimento mundial para exigir a libertação de Lula da Silva.” O manifesto é endossado por juristas mundialmente famosos, tais como Karl Klare, Friedrich Müller, António José Avelãs Nunes e Jonathan Simon. Eminentes pesquisadores do poder e da perseguição judicial (Lawfare), como John Comaroff, Eve Darian-Smith, Tamar Herzog e Elizabeth Mertz, também são apoiadores. Adicionalmente, a petição é subscrita por intelectuais de renome global como Tariq Ali, Robert Brenner, Wendy Brown, Noam Chomsky, Angela Davis, Axel Honneth, Fredric R. Jameson, Leonardo Padura, Carole Pateman, Thomas Piketty, Boaventura de Sousa Santos e Slavoj Žižek. Sociólogos proeminentes como Fred Block, Mark Blyth, Michael Burawoy, Peter Evans, Neil Fligstein, Marion Fourcade, Leo Panitch, Frances Fox Piven, Michael Heinrich, Michael Löwy, Laura Nader, Erik Olin Wright, Dylan Riley, Ananya Roy, Wolfgang Streeck, Göran Therborn, Michael J. Watts e Suzi Weissman também assinaram o manifesto. O mesmo é apoiado por especialistas reconhecidos e diretores de centros de pesquisa em Estudos Latino-Americanos como Alex Borucki, Aviva Chomsky, Brodwyn Fischer, Barbara Fritz, James N. Green, Victoria Langland, Mara Loveman, Carlos Marichal, Teresa A. Meade, Tianna Paschel, Erika Robb Larkins, Aaron Schneider, Stanley J. Stein e Barbara Weinstein. Ademais, é endossado por economistas globalmente reconhecidos como Dean Baker, Ha-Joon Chang, Giovanni Dosi, Gérard Duménil, Gary Dymski, Geoffrey Hodgson, Costas Lapavitsas, Marc Lavoie, Thomas Palley, Robert Pollin, Pierre Salama, Guy Standing, Robert H. Wade e Mark Weisbrot. Lula da Silva é um preso político. Lula livre!  Manifestamos aqui nossa profunda preocupação com as circunstâncias nas quais o ex-presidente brasileiro Lula da Silva foi julgado e preso. Sobram evidências de que Lula da Silva foi vítima de uma guerra jurídica (Lawfare), ou seja, abuso de poder judicial para fins políticos. Portanto, a comunidade internacional deve considerá-lo e tratá-lo como um preso político O julgamento de Lula foi conduzido como parte da chamada Operação Lava Jato, uma investigação sobre pagamentos de propina a executivos da Petrobrás e políticos, alguns dos quais ocorreram enquanto Lula era presidente. Embora críticos afirmem que "Lula deveria saber" ou que “Lula deve ter ganho algo”, não há evidências de sua participação no pagamento de propinas. De acordo com a lei brasileira, a corrupção é uma relação de troca. Para condenar Lula por corrupção, o Ministério Público deveria provar que ele participou das fraudes a licitações e/ou recebeu bens ou valores em contraprestação por tais atos ilícitos.  Em 2016, Lula foi acusado de receber um apartamento modesto da OAS, uma das contratadas da Petrobrás envolvidas no esquema de corrupção. No entanto, não há conversa telefônica gravada, transações bancárias, transferência de fundos ou títulos de propriedade que deem base para a acusação contra Lula. Ele nunca utilizou ou se beneficiou com o apartamento. Pior ainda, mais tarde veio a público a informação de que o mesmo apartamento havia sido dado como garantia pela OAS em transação de empréstimo de longo prazo, não obstante a acusação de que Lula era o dono do imóvel. A falta de provas incriminatórias foi desconsiderada por Sergio Moro, o juiz responsável pelo caso contra Lula. Moro baseou sua decisão em “colaboração informal” (nem mesmo uma delação premiada) de Leo Pinheiro, proprietário da OAS. Pinheiro já havia sido condenado a 26 anos de prisão quando decidiu “colaborar” e envolver Lula. Ele afirmou que o apartamento era "destinado" a Lula, uma acusação que contradiz outros 73 depoimentos, mas que foi considerada suficiente para o juiz Moro condenar Lula da Silva. A sentença de Pinheiro, por sua vez, foi reduzida para três anos e ele foi posto em regime semiaberto. Além de não provar que Lula era proprietário do apartamento, o Ministério Público não pode apontar nenhuma ação ou omissão específica que Lula tenha executado para beneficiar a OAS. Lula havia sido acusado de beneficiar essa empresa com três contratos de fornecimento para a Petrobrás. Após meses de investigações, nenhuma prova material nesse sentido foi encontrada. Moro então condenou Lula por ter praticado “atos indeterminados de corrupção” que teriam beneficiado a OAS. Essa categorização inverte o ônus da prova e a presunção de inocência e simplesmente não existe no sistema jurídico brasileiro. Inadvertidamente, o próprio juiz Moro admitiu que não tinha jurisdição sobre o caso de Lula. Ao julgar um recurso apresentada pela defesa, ele declarou que “jamais afirmou… que os valores obtidos pela Construtora OAS nos contratos com a Petrobrás foram utilizados para pagamento da vantagem indevida para o ex-Presidente”. Se o caso não tem relação com a corrupção da Petrobrás, ele não deveria ter sido julgado por Moro. Em termos mais simples, pode-se dizer que, no processo de Lula, o magistrado escolheu o réu e, atuando como investigador, promotor e juiz, condenou-o por ter cometido “atos de ofício indeterminados de corrupção”. Tal sentença, pelo seu próprio texto, não encontra sustentação legal e constitucional, inclusive pelas normas brasileiras, uma vez que se refere a “atos indeterminados”. Uma sentença que se refere a crimes “indeterminados” não resiste a qualquer escrutínio jurídico lógico e razoável, sendo completamente Kafkiana. Além disso, a referência a “atos de ofício” é irreal, pois as acusações infundadas que motivaram a sentença de Moro se referem a uma narrativa que começa em 2013, bem depois de Lula ter deixado o cargo. A guerra jurídica contra Lula também incluiu táticas para manter seu caso sob a jurisdição de Moro a qualquer custo. Em março de 2016, Moro vazou ilegalmente escutas telefônicas envolvendo a presidente em exercício, Dilma Rousseff, que tratavam da nomeação de Lula como Ministro Chefe da Casa Civil da Presidência da República. Moro alegou, novamente sem provas, que essa nomeação era um meio de “obstrução da justiça”, já que, uma vez nomeado para o governo, Lula seria julgado pelo Supremo Tribunal Federal (STF) e não pelo próprio Moro. Embora a imparcialidade de Moro tenha sido questionada, o Tribunal Regional Federal da 4a Região (TRF-4), a instância a rever imediatamente o caso de Lula na estrutura judiciária brasileiro, considerou que a Operação Lava Jato era “excepcional” e que as regras “ordinárias” não se lhe aplicavam. A natureza Kafkiana do julgamento de Lula foi reforçada quando, em agosto de 2017, o Presidente do TRF-4 declarou que a sentença de Moro contra Lula era “tecnicamente irrepreensível”, embora admitisse que nem havia lido o caso. Enquanto isso, sua chefe de gabinete postava em sua página no Facebook uma petição solicitando a prisão de Lula da Silva. Em seguida, o TRF-4 acelerou a apreciação do caso. O julgamento da apelação contra a sentença de Moro que condenou Lula foi colocado à frente de 257 outros casos pendentes. O relator levou apenas seis dias para concluir sua análise do caso, em um processo que tinha literalmente milhares de páginas e horas de depoimentos. A turma do Tribunal levou 196 dias para julgar a apelação quando, em média, necessita de 473 dias para julgar casos semelhantes. O TRF-4 também ordenou a prisão de Lula tão logo do julgamento da apelação, o que aconteceu com apenas 3 dos outros 20 acusados na Lava Jato, cujos mandados de prisão foram emitidos apenas meses depois. Lula então pleiteou um Habeas Corpus no Supremo Tribunal Federal (STF), visando afastar a possibilidade de prisão imediata, dado que ainda tinha o direito de entrar com recursos. De acordo com a Constituição brasileira, “ninguém será considerado culpado até o trânsito em julgado de sentença penal condenatória”. Dada essa previsão expressa na Constituição, é importante notar o seguinte: a sentença proferida por Moro contra Lula, cuja condenação foi mantida e ampliada pelo TRF-4 (de 9 para 12 anos de prisão), ainda pode ser revista pelos Tribunais Superiores, incluindo o STJ (Superior Tribunal de Justiça) e o STF (Supremo Tribunal Federal), este último a instância mais elevada no país para questões constitucionais. Em voto decisivo para a negativa do Habeas Corpus a Lula, uma Ministra do STF declarou que teria votado de outra forma se a Corte estivesse analisando a questão constitucional em abstrato, ao invés de sua aplicação específica ao caso de Lula. Na véspera da votação, o Comandante Geral do Exército tuitou uma mensagem para a Corte, dizendo que “o Exército não tolerará a impunidade”. Por essa ameaça velada, ele não recebeu reprimendas, mas sim uma “curtida” vinda da conta do Twitter do mesmo TRF-4 que confirmou a condenação de Lula.  Na manhã seguinte, o juiz que preside o TRF-4 previu, em entrevista à imprensa, que a prisão de Lula não ocorreria em menos de um mês, considerando todos os procedimentos ainda pendentes no tribunal. À tarde, no entanto, o TRF-4 pediu a Moro que ordenasse a prisão de Lula. Moro levou dezenove minutos para proferir decisão, a qual reconhecia que Lula ainda tinha direito a interpor um recurso perante o TRF-4, mas considerava que esse recurso é uma “patologia protelatória” que “deveria ser eliminada do mundo jurídico". Não é de surpreender pesquisa recente na qual 55% dos entrevistados no Brasil concordam que “Lula está sendo perseguido pelo Judiciário” e 73% concordam com a afirmação de que “os poderosos o querem fora das eleições” nas quais ele ainda é, de longe, o candidato favorito. Os abusos do poder judiciário contra Lula da Silva configuram uma perseguição política mal disfarçada sob manto legal. Lula da Silva é um preso político. Sua detenção mancha a democracia brasileira. Os defensores da democracia e da justiça social no Oriente e no Ocidente, no Norte e no Sul do globo, devem se unir a um movimento mundial para exigir a libertação de Lula da Silva. Exigimos: Free Lula, Lula Libre, Liberté por Lula, Freiheit für Lula, Lula Libero, حرية, 释放卢拉, 룰라 석방하라!, חוֹפֶשׁ, フリーダム, Свободу Луле, Lula Livre!       1.           Tariq Ali – New Left Review (Editor), London 2.           Dean Baker - Center for Economic and Policy Research (senior economist), Washington, D.C. 3.           Fred Block -  Research Professor, University of California, Davis 4.           Mark Blyth - Eastman Professor of Political Economy - The Watson Institute for International Affairs - Brown University 5.           Alex Borucki - Director, Latin American Studies Center, Associate Professor, History Department - University of California, Irvine 6.           Robert Brenner – Director, Center for Social Theory and Comparative History - University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) 7.           Wendy Brown - Class of 1936 Chair, University of California, Berkeley 8.           Michael Burawoy – Professor, University of California, Berkeley; Former President of the American Sociological Association (2004) and the International Sociological Association (2010-2014) 9.           Ha-Joon Chang - Director of the Centre of Development Studies, Reader in the Political Economy of Development, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge 10.         Aviva Chomsky - Professor of History and Coordinator of Latin American Studies, Salem State University 11.         Noam Chomsky - Professor Emeritus at the Institute of Technology (MIT) and laureate professor at the University of Arizona 12.         John Comaroff - Hugh K. Foster Professor of African and African American Studies and of Anthropology - Harvard University 13.         Eve Darian-Smith - Professor Anthropology, Law, and Criminology, Law and Society; Director of International Studies - University of California Irvine 14.         Angela Davis - Distinguished Professor Emerita - University of California, Santa Cruz 15.         Giovanni Dosi - Professor of Economics and Director of the Institute of Economics at the Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna in Pisa; Co-Director IPD - Initiative for Policy Dialogue at Columbia University. 16.         Gérard Duménil - Université Paris 10, Paris, former Research Director at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS, French National Center of Scientific Research) 17.         Gary Dymski - Professor of Applied Economics, Leeds University Business School 18.         Peter Evans – Emeritus Professor of Sociology, University of California, Berkeley 19.         Brodwyn Fischer - Director of the Center for Latin American Studies, Professor of History at the University of Chicago. 20.         Neil Fligstein - Class of 1939 Chair, Department of Sociology, University of California, Berkeley 21.         Marion Fourcade, Associate Professor, Department of Sociology, University of California, Berkeley 22.         Stanley A. Gacek - Senior Advisor for Global Strategies - United Food and Commercial Workers International Union (UFCW) - Washington, D.C. 23.         James N. Green - Carlos Manuel de Céspedes Professor of Latin American History - Brown University; Distinguished Visiting Professor (Professor Amit), Hebrew University in Jerusalem 24.         Michael Heinrich - former Professor of Economics at Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft, Berlin 25.         Tamar Herzog - Monroe Gutman Professor of Latin American Affairs, Harvard Law School 26.         Geoffrey Hodgson - Research Professor, University of Hertfordshire - Winner of the 2014 Schumpeter Prize 27.         Axel Honneth - Jack C. Weinstein Professor of the Humanities, Philosophy Department, Columbia University; Director of the Institute for Social Research, Frankfurt/M 28.         Fredric R. Jameson - Knut Schmidt-Nielsen Professor of Comparative Literature - Duke University 29.         Karl Klare - George J. & Kathleen Waters Matthews Distinguished University Professor - School of Law - Northeastern University 30.         Victoria Langland - Director of the Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies and the Brazil Initiative, University of Michigan 31.         Costas Lapavitsas - University of London (SOAS Japan Research Centre; London Asia Pacific Centre for Social Science - Steering Committee Member) 32.         Marc Lavoie -  Senior Research Chair, Université Sorbonne Paris Cité 33.         Mara Loveman – Director of the Sociology Department – University of California, Berkeley 34.         Michael Löwy - Emeritus research director at the CNRS and lecturer at the École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (EHESS, Paris, France) 35.         Carlos Marichal - Professor - El Colegio de México, Founder and President of the Mexican Association of Economic History (2000-2004) 36.         Teresa A. Meade - Florence B. Sherwood Professor of History and Culture, Director of Latin American & Caribbean Studies Program, Union College, New York 37.         Elizabeth Mertz, PhD, JD - John & Rylla Bosshard Professor Emerita, University of Wisconsin Law School, Research Professor, American Bar Foundation 38.         Friedrich Müller - Emeritus Full Professor - Heidelberg University Faculty of Law, Germany 39.         Laura Nader – Emeritus Professor of Anthropology at the University of California, Berkeley 40.         António José Avelãs Nunes – Emeritus Full Professor - Coimbra University, Portugal 41.         Erik Olin Wright - Vilas Distinguished Research Professor, University of Wisconsin – Madison 42.         Leonardo Padura – Independent Author – Cuba 43.         Thomas Palley – Independent Economist – Washington DC 44.         Tianna Paschel -  Professor in the Department of African American Studies at the University of California, Berkeley 45.         Carole Pateman - Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Political Science, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), former President of the International Political Science Association (1991–94) and of the American Political Science Association (2010–11). 46.         Thomas Piketty - Professor at EHESS (École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales) and at the Paris School of Economics 47.         Frances Fox Piven - Distinguished Professor of Political Science and Sociology Emeritus, Graduate School of the City University of New York (CUNY) 48.         Robert Pollin - Distinguished Professor of Economics and Co-Director, Political Economy Research Institute (PERI), University of Massachusetts-Amherst 49.         Dylan Riley - Director of Graduate Studies, Professor of Sociology, University of California, Berkeley 50.         Erika Robb Larkins – Associate Professor, Sociology, San Diego State University 51.         Ananya Roy - Professor of Urban Planning, Social Welfare and Geography and inaugural Director of The Institute on Inequality and Democracy at UCLA Luskin 52.         Pierre Salama - Emeritus Professor of Economics - University of Paris XIII 53.         Aaron Schneider - Leo Block Chair/Director, Latin America Center and Program in International Development, University of Denver 54.         Jonathan Simon - Adrian A. Kragen Professor of Law, Faculty Director, Center for the Study of Law & Society, University of California, Berkeley, School of Law 55.         Boaventura de Sousa Santos - University of Coimbra; Distinguished Legal Scholar at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Law School; Global Legal Scholar at the University of Warwick 56.         Guy Standing – FacSS - SOAS University of London 57.         Stanley J. Stein - Walter Samuel Carpenter III Professor in Spanish Civilization and Culture, Emeritus; Professor of History, Emeritus - Princeton University 58.         Wolfgang Streeck - Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies, Cologne, Germany 59.         Göran Therborn - Professor Emeritus of Sociology, University of Cambridge, UK 60.         Robert H. Wade - Professor of Global Political Economy - Department of International Development - London School of Economics (LSE) - Leontief Prize in Economics 61.         Michael J. Watts - "Class of 1963" Emeritus Professor of Geography and Development Studies at the University of California, Berkeley 62.         Barbara Weinstein - Silver Professor of History and chair of the Department of History at New York University, former president of the American Historical Association 63.         Mark Weisbrot - co-director of the Center for Economic and Policy Research and president of Just Foreign Policy, Washington, D.C. 64.         Suzi Weissman - Professor - Saint Mary's College of California 65.         Slavoj Žižek - University of Ljubljana; Global Distinguished Professor of German at New York University; international director of the Birkbeck Institute for the Humanities of the University of London 66.         Bakhtiyor Abdulhamidov - School of Law, SOAS 67.         Carlos H. Acuña, CONICET/Universidad de Buenos Aires and Universidad Nacional de San Martín 68.         Paulina L. Alberto - Associate Professor, History and Romance Languages, University of Michigan 69.         Guy Alain Aronoff - Lecturer, History Department, Humboldt State University, Arcata, California 70.         Alexander Alberro, Virginia Bloedel Wright Professor of Art History, Barnard College/Columbia University, New York City 71.         Bruno Amable – Professor of Political Economy - Université de Genève 72.         Andrew Arato - Dorothy Hirshon Professor, New School for Social Research, New York 73.         Rebecca J. Atencio - Director, Gender and Sexuality Studies Program, Associate Professor of Brazilian Studies, Tulane University, New Orleans 74.         Geri Augusto - Gerard Visiting Associate Professor of International & Public Affairs and Africana Studies, Brown University, Watson Institute Faculty Fellow, Fulbright Scholar 75.         Bruce Bagley – Professor, Department of International Studies, University of Miami 76.         Gianpaolo Baiocchi - Director of the Urban Democracy Lab, Professor of Individualized Studies and Sociology, New York University 77.         Leandro Benmergui, Assistant Professor, Purchase College, State University of New York 78.         Raimundo C. Barreto, Jr. -  Ph.D., Assistant Professor of World Christianity, Princeton Theological Seminary 79.         Sherna Berger Gluck, Emerita Professor of History, California State University, Long Beach 80.         Tunde Bewaji - Professor of Philosophy, Department of Language, Linguistics and Philosophy, University of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica 81.         Cyrus Bina - Distinguished Research Professor of Economics, University of Minnesota (Morris Campus), USA & Fellow, Economists for Peace and Security 82.         O'Neill Blacker-Hanson, Ph.D. - Visiting Scholar, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque 83.         Ernesto Bohoslavsky – Professor, Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento 84.         Scott A. Bollens - Warmington Chair in Peace and International Cooperation, Professor - Department of Urban Planning and Public Policy, University of California, Irvine 85.         Benjamin H. Bradlow - Brown University 86.         Joana Bragança Bastos – Visiting Scholar, Stanford Medical School 87.         Howard Brick - Professor of History and Louis Evans Chair in U.S. History, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. 88.         Renate Bridenthal - Professor Emerita of History, Brooklyn College, City University of New York (CUNY) 89.         John Burdick, Professor of Anthropology, Syracuse University, New York 90.         Cornelia Butler Flora - Distinguished Professor of Sociology Emeritus, Iowa State University, Research Professor, Kansas State University 91.         Jim Campen - Professor of Economics, Emeritus, Univ of Massachusetts Boston 92.         Mariana P. Candido - Associate Professor, Department of History, University of Notre Dame 93.         Cláudio Carvalhaes - Associate Professor of Worship, Union Theological Seminary - New York City 94.         Bruno Carvalho - Associate Professor, Spanish and Portuguese Languages and Cultures, Princeton Mellon Initiative - Princeton University 95.         Sueann Caulfield - Associate Professor, University of Michigan 96.         Sidney Chalhoub - Professor of History and African and African American Studies, Harvard University 97.         Stephen Cole - Chair, Department of History and Political Science, Professor, History and Political Science, Notre Dame de Namur University, California 98.         Nicholas Copeland, Assistant Professor of American Indian Studies, Virginia Tech 99.         Carlos Cortez Minchillo - Assistant professor, Dartmouth College 100.       Benjamin A. Cowan - Associate Professor, Department of History, University of California San Diego 101.       Lisa Covert - Assistant Professor, College of Charleston, South Carolina 102.       Raymond B. Craib - Professor of History, Director of the Latin American Studies Program (LASP), Cornell University 103.       Chuck Davis - Professor of Labor Studies, Indiana University 104.       Alicia Díaz, Assistant Professor of Dance, The University of Richmond 105.       Arcadio Díaz-Quiñones - Professor Emeritus, Department of Spanish and Portuguese, Princeton University 106.       Edgardo Dieleke (filmmaker and professor) - Phd, Princeton University - NYU - Buenos Aires / Universidad de San Andrés 107.       Elizabeth Dore - Emeritus Professor, University of Southampton, UK 108.       Robert S. DuPlessis - Isaac H. Clothier Professor of History and International Relations Emeritus - Swarthmore College, Pennsylvania 109.       Eduardo Elena - Associate Professor, University of Miami 110.       Marc Edelman - Professor of Anthropology, Hunter College and the Graduate Center, City University of New York 111.       Jeffrey Erbig - Latin American and Latino Studies, University of California, Santa Cruz 112.       Arturo Escobar – Professor of Anthropology - The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 113.       Joana Falcão Salles - Associate Professor in Microbial Community Ecology, Expertise group GREEN (Genomics Research in Ecology & Evolution in Nature), Groningen Institute for Evolutionary Life Sciences, University of Groningen, Netherlands 114.       Toyin Falola - Jacob and Frances Sanger Mossiker Chair in the Humanities at the University of Texas at Austin 115.       John Faulkner - SOAS, University of London 116.       Gordon Fellman, Professor of Sociology, Brandeis University, , Massachusetts 117.       Débora Ferreira – Professor, Portuguese Program Coordinator, former Member of the Faculty Senate and Chair of Faculty Development Committee, Utah Valley University 118.       Roquinaldo Ferreira - History/Portuguese and Brazilian Studies, Brown University 119.       Denise Ferreira da Silva - Professor and Director, The Social Justice Institute (Gender, Race, Sexuality, and Social Justice), University of British Columbia, Canada 120.       Carlos Figueroa, Ph.D. - Assistant Professor, Politics Department - Ithaca College 121.       Carl Fischer, Modern Languages and Literatures Department, Fordham University 122.       Marilyn Frankenstein – Retired Professor, Quantitative Reasoning and Media Literacy, University of Massachusetts, Boston 123.       Elena Fratto, Humanistic Studies, Princeton University 124.       Frederico Freitas, Ph.D. - Assistant Professor of History, North Carolina State University 125.       Barbara Fritz - Institute for Latin American Studies/School of Business & Economics - Freie Universität Berlin 126.       Leo J. Garofalo, Associate Professor of History, Connecticut College 127.       Florencia Garramuño, full professor and the Chair of the Humanities Department at the Universidad de San Andrés, Argentina 128.       Pablo Gentili – Executive Secretary - The Latin American Council of Social Sciences (CLACSO) 129.       Gabriel Giorgi - Professor, Department of Spanish and Portuguese Languages and Literatures, New York University 130.       David Theo Goldberg - Director and Professor, Humanities Research Institute, University of California Berkeley 131.       Reena Goldthree - Assistant Professor of African American Studies, Princeton University - Professor of History, Truman State University, Missouri 132.       Mónica González García, Profesora Asociada de Literatura Comparada e Intermedialidad, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Chile 133.       Jessica Graham - Professor of History, University of California San Diego 134.       Richard Grossman -  PhD, Northeastern Illinois University 135.       Antonio Sergio Alfredo Guimaraes - Visiting Fellow, Lemann Institute of Brazilian Studies, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 136.       David Gullette, Professor Emeritus of English, Simmons College, Boston 137.       Gerard Gunning - University Lecturer at SOAS University of London 138.       María del Mar Gutiérrez Domínguez - El Colegio de México 139.       Martin Halpern - Professor of History Emeritus, Henderson State University, Arkadelphia, Arkansas 140.       Laurence Harris - Professor, SOAS, University of London 141.       Noel Healy - Associate Professor of Geography, Salem State University Virginia Parks, Professor of Urban Planning, University of California at Irvine 142.       Inez Hedges, Ph.D. - Professor Emerita of Cultures, Societies, and Global Studies, Northeastern University 143.       Rebecca Herman, Professor of History, University of California, Berkeley 144.       Marc A. Hertzman, Associate Professor and Conrad Humanities Scholar, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign 145.       Walter L. Hixson - Distinguished Professor of History, University of Akron, Ohio 146.       Elizabeth Quay Hutchison - Professor, Latin American History - President, Faculty Concilium on Latin America and Iberia - Director, Feminist Research Institute - Chair, Committee on Governance - The University of New Mexico 147.       Rafael R. Ioris, Ph.D.- Associate Professor of Latin American History, History Department, Affiliated Faculty, Latin American Center, Joseph Korbel School of International Studies, University of Denver 148.       Clara E. Irazábal-Zurita - Director of the Latinx and Latin American Studies Program, Professor of Urban Planning | Department of Architecture, Urban Planning + Design (AUPD), University of Missouri - Kansas City 149.       Alexandra Isfahani-Hammond - Associate Professor Emeritus of Comparative Literature And Luso-Brazilian Studies, U.C. San Diego 150.       Thomas Jessen Adams - Academic Coordinator and Lecturer in American Studies and History, United States Studies Centre, University of Sydney 151.       Cedric Johnson - Associate Professor, African American Studies and Political Science - University of Illinois at Chicago 152.       Benjamin Junge, PhD - Associate Professor - State University of New York at New Paltz 153.       Tercio Bretanha Junker, PhD, Dean of the Chapel and Regional Director of Course of Study Program, Garrett-Evangelical Theological Seminary, Illinois 154.       Louis Kampf - Professor Emeritus - MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology 155.       Temma Kaplan - Distinguished Professor of History, Emerita, Rutgers University 156.       Mary Kay Vaughan - Professor Emerita, University of Maryland 157.       Robin D.G. Kelley - Gary B. Nash Professor of American History at UCLA, former Harmsworth Chair of American History at Oxford University 158.       Gray F. Kidd - Duke University, North Carolina 159.       Roger Kittleson - Professor of History, Williams College, Massachusetts 160.       Anna M. Klobucka - Professor of Portuguese and Women's and Gender Studies, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth 161.       Peter Kuznick - Professor of History, Director Nuclear Studies Institute, American University, Washington, D.C. 162.       German Labrador Mendez - Associate Professor, Princeton University 163.       Jennifer Lambe - Assistant Professor, Department of History, Brown University 164.       Dany Lang - Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité/l’Université de Saint Louis (Belgium). 165.       Paul Lauter - Allan K. and Gwendolyn Miles Smith Professor of Literature Emeritus at Trinity College in Hartford, Connecticut, former President of the American Studies Association (USA), Francis Andrew March Award 2017. 166.       John Lawrence, Professor Psychology Department, College of Staten Island, City University of New York 167.       Nicole D. Legnani - Assistant Professor of Colonial Latin American Studies - Department of Spanish and Portuguese - Princeton University 168.       Fernando Leiva - Associate Professor, Latin American and Latino Studies, University of California Santa Cruz 169.       María Graciela León Matamoros - Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Unidad Cuajimalpa, México 170.       Deborah Levenson - Professor of Latin American History, Boston College 171.       Marilia Librandi - Professor of Luso-Brazilian and Latin American Literature and Cultures, Stanford University 172.       Clara E. Lida - Research-Professor, Chair on Mexico-Spain at the Centro de Estudios Históricos, El Colegio de México 173.       Lisa Lindsay, Bowman and Gordon Gray Distinguished Term Professor, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 174.       Maria-Aparecida Lopes - Professor of History, California State University, Fresno 175.       Christopher Lowe, Independent Historian of Africa, Portland, Oregon USA; Ph.D. Yale University 176.       Ryan Lynch - University of California, Santa Barbara 177.       Arthur MacEwan - Professor Emeritus of Economics, University of Massachusetts Boston 178.       Kathleen McAfee - Professor, International Relations, San Francisco State University 179.       Elias Mandala, History professor at University of Rochester, New York, USA 180.       Maxine L. Margolis - Professor Emerita of Anthropology, University of Florida and Adjunct Senior Research Scholar, Institute of Latin American Studies, Columbia University 181.       Irving Leonard Markovitz – Professor of Political Science, The Graduate Center, City University of New York (CUNY) 182.       Elio Masferrer Kan, Profesor Investigador Emérito, ENAH – Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, México 183.       Marjorie Mayo - Emeritus Professor, Goldsmiths, University of London 184.       Sandra McGee Deutsch - Professor of History, University of Texas at El Paso 185.       Gillian McGillivray, Associate Professor of Latin American History, Glendon College, York University, Canada 186.       Malcolm McNee - Associate Professor of Portuguese and Brazilian Studies, Department of Spanish and Portuguese, Smith College, Massachusetts 187.       Lucía Melgar - Associate Researcher, ITAM, Mexico City, Mexico 188.       Alessandra Mezzadri - Senior Lecturer in Development Studies, Department of Development Studies, SOAS, London 189.       Michael Meeropol - Professor Emeritus of Economics, Western New England University, Springfield, Massachusetts 190.       Cristina Mehrtens - Associate Professor in the History and Women's & Gender Studies departments at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth 191.       William Mello - Associate Professor, Indiana University 192.       Ian Merkel - History and French Studies, New York University (NYU) 193.       Paul C. Mishler, PhD. - Associate Professor of Labor Studies -Department of Labor Studies - Indiana University 194.       Owen Miller - Lecturer in Korean Studies, Department of East Asian Languages and Cultures, SOAS, London 195.       Pedro Meira Monteiro - Professor and Chair of the Department of Spanish and Portuguese Studies, Princeton University 196.       Andrea Melloni -  Portuguese Lecturer, Princeton University 197.       Lorraine C. Minnite - Associate Professor of Public Policy, Rutgers University, Camden 198.       Sean Mitchell - Associate Professor, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Rutgers University, Newark 199.       Julia Monarrez, Professor of El Colegio de la Frontera Norte, Tijuana, B.C., México 200.       Beatriz de Moraes Vieira - Visiting Scholar, Cornell University 201.       Michelle Morais de Sa e Silva, PhD - Lecturer in International and Area Studies, Department of International and Area Studies, The University of Oklahoma 202.       Paulo Moreira - Associate Professor, Department of Modern Languages, Literatures and Linguistics, University of Oklahoma 203.       Julieta Mortati - Universidad Tres de Febrero, Buenos Aires, Argentina 204.       Joia S. Mukherjee, MD, MPH - Chief Medical Officer, Partners In Health, Associate Professor, Harvard Medical School 205.       Nick Nesbitt, Professor - Department of French and Italian, Princeton University 206.       Sara Niedzwiecki - Assistant Professor, Politics Department, University of California, Santa Cruz 207.       Marcelo Noah, Duke University 208.       Renato Nunes Balbim - Visiting Scholar - University of California at Irvine 209.       Paul O'Connell - Associate Dean for Research (Law and Social Sciences) - SOAS, University of London 210.       Arnold J Oliver - Emeritus Professor of Political Science, Heidelberg University, Tiffin, Ohio 211.       Andrea Pagni, Friedrich-Alexander-Univesität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany 212.       Marcelo Paixão - Associate Professor of The University of Texas at Austin 213.       Charles Palermo, Professor, College of William & Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia 214.       Cecilia Palmeiro, PhD - Universidad Nacional de Tres de Febrero – Argentina 215.       Fabio Paolizzo - University of California Irvine, University of Rome Tor Vergata 216.       Virginia Parks - Chair of Department of Planning, Policy and Design; Professor of Urban Planning, University of California at Irvine 217.       Kenneth Paul Erickson - Professor of Political Science - Hunter College, and The Graduate Center, City University of New York (CUNY) 218.       Keisha-Khan Perry - Associate Professor, Director of Graduate Studies, The Department of Africana Studies - Brown University 219.       Gretchen Pierce, Ph.D. - Associate Professor, Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania 220.       Julio Pinto Vallejos - Departamento de Historia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile 221.       José Antonio Piqueras, Professor of History, Universitat Jaume I (Spain) 222.       Margaret Power - Professor of History and Chair of the Department of Humanities, Illinois Institute of Technology 223.       Fabricio Prado, Associate Professor of History, College of William & Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia 224.       Mary Louise Pratt - Silver Professor in the Department of Social and Cultural Analysis - New York University - former President of the Modern Language Association 225.       Seth Racusen, Associate Professor of Political Science and Criminal Justice, Anna Maria College, Massachusetts 226.       Donald Ramos, Emeritus Professor, Cleveland State University 227.       George Reid Andrews - Distinguished Professor of History, University of Pittsburgh 228.       Peter Ranis - Professor Emeritus of Political Science, City University of New York (CUNY) 229.       Lucía Raphael de la Madrid - Instituto de Investigaciones Jurídicas - Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) 230.       Marcus Rediker, Distinguished Professor of Atlantic History of the Department of History at University of Pittsburgh 231.       Adolph Reed, Jr. - Professor of Political Science - University of Pennsylvania 232.       Jan Rehmann - Director of the Ph.D Program, Visiting Professor for Critical Theory and Social Analysis, Union Theological Seminary, New York 233.       Russell Rickford - Associate Professor, History Department, Cornell University 234.       Abigail Rian Evans, Charlotte Newcombe Professor of Practical Theology, Emerita, Princeton Theological Seminary, New Jersey 235.       Jonathan Ritter - Associate Professor of Music, University of California Riverside 236.       Dylon Robbins - Department of Spanish & Portuguese/Center for Latin American & Caribbean Studies (CLACS) - New York University 237.       Thomas D. Rogers - Associate Professor, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 238.       Monique Rodrigues Balbuena - Associate Professor of Comparative Literature and Jewish Studies, Clark Honors College, University of Oregon 239.       Manuel Rosaldo - University of California, Berkeley 240.       Karin Rosemblatt - Professor, Department of History, University of Maryland 241.       Robert C. Rosen - William Paterson University, New Jersey 242.       Jennifer Roth-Gordon - Associate Professor, School of Anthropology, University of Arizona 243.       Fábio de Sá e Silva - Professor of International Studies and Wick Cary Professor of Brazilian Studies at the University of Oklahoma 244.       Alfredo Saad Filho - Professor of Political Economy ¬- SOAS University of London 245.       Marco Aurelio Santana - Visiting Scholar, University of California, Berkeley 246.       Patricia de Santana Pinho - Associate Professor, Latin American and Latino Studies, University of California, Santa Cruz 247.       Martha S Santos - Associate Professor, University of Akron, Ohio 248.       David Sartorius - Associate Professor of History and a Faculty Affiliate of the Latin American Studies Center and the Department of Women's Studies, University of Maryland 249.       Patricia Schor ¬- Lecturer, Social Sciences & Humanities, Amsterdam University College, The Netherlands 250.       Ellen Schrecker - Professor of History, retired, Yeshiva University, New York City 251.       Mark Selden - Senior Research Associate in the East Asia Program, Cornell University, and Professor Emeritus of Sociology and History, State University of New York at Binghamton 252.       Alan Shane Dillingham - Assistant Professor of Latin American History, director of Latin American Studies Minor at Spring Hill College, Mobile, Alabama 253.       Lewis H. Siegelbaum - Jack and Margaret Sweet Professor of History at Michigan State University 254.       Antonio José Bacelar da Silva - Assistant Professor of Latin American Studies - University of Arizona 255.       Subir Sinha - Senior Lecturer in Institutions and Development, SOAS, University of London 256.       Irene Small - Professor, Princeton University 257.       Colin M. Snider - Department of History - University of Texas at Tyler 258.       Greg Snyder - Union Theological Seminary, Columbia University, New York 259.       Andor Skotnes, Professor of History, The Sage Colleges, Troy and Albany, New York 260.       William C. Smith - Professor of Political Science, University of Miami 261.       Ted Steinberg - Adeline Barry Davee Distinguished Professor of History and Professor of Law at Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland 262.       Steve Striffler, Director of the Labor Resource Center, College of Liberal Arts, University of Massachusetts Boston (UMass) 263.       Susan Sugarman - Professor of Psychology, Princeton University 264.       David Swanson - Author, Director World BEYOND War, M.A. University of Virginia 265.       Robert C.H. Sweeny - Honorary Research Professor, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada 266.       Howie Swerdloff -  Instructor, The Writing Program, Rutgers University 267.       Laura Tabili - Professor of History, Arizona University 268.       Horacio Tarcus - CeDInCI, Conicet, Argentina 269.       Rebecca Tarlau - Professor, The Pennsylvania State University 270.       Sinclair Thomson, Associate Professor of History, New York University (NYU) 271.       Enzo Traverso - Simon and Barton Winokur Professor in the Humanities, Cornell University 272.       Mario Trujillo Bolio - Profesor Investigador Titular Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropología Social – CIESAS Ciudad de México 273.       Cihan Tugal - Associate Professor of Sociology, University of California, Berkeley 274.       Ivonne del Valle - Associate Professor of Colonial Studies, Department of Spanish and Portuguese, UC Berkeley 275.       Diana Tussie, FLACSO , Argentina 276.       Joel Vargas-Domínguez - Centro de Investigaciones Interdisciplinarias en Ciencias y Humanidades (CEIICH), Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) - Mexico 277.       Eleni Varikas - Emerita Professor of Political Science and Gender Studies, University of Paris 8, CRESPPA (CNRS) 278.       Roberto Vecchi - Full Professor of Portuguese and Brazilian Studies, former Director of the Department of the Modern Languages, Literatures and Cultures, University of Bologna, Italy 279.       Miguel Vedda – Full Professor – University of Buenos Aires (UBA) 280.       Alejandro Velasco, Ph.D. - Associate Professor of Modern Latin America, Gallatin School and Department of History, New York University 281.       Matías Vernengo - Full Professor - Bucknell University, Pennsylvania 282.       Matthew Vitz - Assistant Professor, Department of History, University of California, San Diego 283.       Juan Pablo Vivaldo Martínez, Professor, UNAM 284.       Steven S. Volk - Professor of History, Emeritus, Director, Center for Teaching, Innovation, and Excellence, Oberlin College, Ohio 285.       Victor Wallis - professor, Liberal Arts Dept., Berklee College of Music 286.       Ellie Walsh, Ph.D. - Associate Professor of History & Social Sciences, Affiliated Faculty, Gender and Sexuality Studies Program, College of Arts and Letters, Governors State University, Illinois 287.       Valeria Wasserman Chomsky - Translator, ArtVentures Cultural Projects and Translations 288.       Helen Webb, Lecturer of Foreign Languages Emerita, University of Pennsylvania 289.       John Weeks - Professor Emeritus of Economics – SOAS - University of London 290.       Max Weiss, Associate Professor, Departments of History and Near Eastern Studies, Princeton University 291.       Kirsten Weld - John L. Loeb Associate Professor of the Social Sciences, Department of History, Harvard University 292.       Robert Wilcox – Professor of History, Northern Kentucky University 293.       Richard Williams - Lecturer, SOAS, University of London 294.       Howard Winant - Distinguished Professor of Sociology - University of California, Santa Barbara 295.       Joel Wolfe - Professor of History, University of Massachusetts Amherst 296.       John Womack -  Professor Of The History of Latin America, Emeritus, Harvard University 297.       James Woodard - Associate Professor of History, Montclair State University, New Jersey 298.       Owen Worth - Senior Lecturer in International Relations - University of Limerick, Ireland 299.       Galip Yalman - Assoc.Prof. Dr., Middle East Technical University, Ankara - Turkey 300.       Pedro Paulo Zahluth Bastos – Visiting Scholar, University of California, Berkeley 301.       Francisco Zapata, Professor of Sociology, El Colegio de México 302.       Pat Zavella - Professor Emerita, Latin American and Latino Studies Department, University of California, Santa Cruz 303.       Tukufu Zuberi - Professor of Sociology and African Studies - University of Pennsylvania   The manifesto was organized by Erika Robb Larkins, James N. Green, Peter Evans, Rebecca Tarlau and Stanley Gacek.    

    Global Scholars for Brazilian Democracy
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